In this Issue
News from Peru
Archaeological Sites Conservation
Historic Hotels in SE Asia
Illicit Traffic of Cultural Property
International Mid-Career Exchanges
CABLE CAR PROPOSED FOR MACHU PICCHU
The remote and mystical City of the Incas, precariously perched on the 362 meter high cliffs above its surrounding valleys, may no longer be so remote. A project under consideration by the Government of Peru would install cable car service between the village of Aguas Calientes and the archeological site. As planned, the cable car will be highly visible from most of the site and potentially will increase the annual visitation from 300,000 to 1,460,000 when the cable car system is used at its maximum capacity for 10 hours every day.
Presently, access to Machu Picchu follows roughly the same rugged path that is alleged by some as being the same one taken by Hiram Bingham when he discovered the site in 1911. Whether true or not, the process of getting to Machu Picchu today continues to reaffirm its remoteness and the difficulties of its construction and exploration.
Starting from Cuzco, visitors can either take the picturesque train that arduously climbs back and forth out of the valley of Cuzco to again begin a slow descent; or ride the buses to the end of the road at the Urubamba station, where the narrow-gauge tourist train borders the narrow Urubamba river valley to the village Aguas Calientes, deep in a canyon at the foot of Machu Picchu. From there, mini-buses ascend Bingham’s 14 vertiginous zig-zags to Machu Picchu. It is an awesome, yet comfortable trek which makes the concealment intent of the Incas a living, though often terrifying experience to all visitors. Once in Machu Picchu, the visitor’s sense of isolation from the world is complete, keeping alive the experience that must have been felt by the original Incas.
The cable car project is causing deep divisions, even among the preservation community, which is now planning its own series of discussion sessions to consider the impact of the cable car in greater depth. Those in favor cite that cable car service to Machu Picchu was first suggested by UNESCO in the 1960s, a justification that is quickly counteracted precisely on the date of that proposal, when technology was still felt to be a valid answer to most social problems. UNESCO’s World Heritage Bureau is observing with caution, calling for a comprehensive master plan for the site and setting a 15 September deadline for receiving a report from the Peruvian government on their progress in this regard.
In addition to the potentially serious alterations to the landscape and the visitor experience, installation of this new transportation service spurs several other areas of concern, including the erosion and vandalism brought about by the quintiplication of visitors, the inevitable over-exploitation of commercial ventures in the limited area between the proposed cable car terminal and the site, and the dubious sustainability of a cable car in a town that is not even serviced by vehicular roads. And, while no one is talking about building roads now, many fear that once the cable car is built, it will provide the inevitable justification for one. There is no road because of the two access paths that exist, neither can easily accommodate motorized vehicular transit. One is the Royal Inca Road, which goes through the rugged mountain tops and is for foot traffic only. It is popular with trekkers because of its camping facilities and the many secondary Inca sites along the way. The other access is that of the train, through the Urubamba river canyon, which in many parts can scarcely accommodate the river bed and the rail track. All agree that a road in the canyon would cause irreparable damage to this unspoiled and deeply historic landscape. Others are quick to add that a road will never be built because the economic interests of the railroad are too strong.
With sustainability becoming a central concern for all development undertakings, the cable car project is judged by many as a premier example of a non-sustainable investment, even though it has found considerable support in the Cuzco region. At a seminar on Tourism Management in Protected Areas that followed the 32nd Regional World Tourism Organization’s (WTO) Commission Meeting of the Americas in Guayaquil,. WTO expert David Parra stressed as one of his four priorities the need for sustainability through environmentally integrated architecture, unconventional technologies, and the use of materials adapted to the surroundings in order to optimize conditions of community self-sufficiency. (WTO news, JULY-AUGUST 98). The cable car does not appear to meet any of these recommendations.
Cable car access to difficult sites is always a tempting way to increase and facilitate visitation. Cable cars abound in the world, and in Latin America the cable cars in Rio, Caracas, Bogota and Salta immediately come to mind. It might be pertinent to remember how often the cable car in Caracas is closed for long periods of repair. But cable cars to reach breathtaking metropolitan belvederes should not be equated with similar installations at cultural sites. There is a cable car in Massada, Israel, and one was considered, but discarded for the Citadelle in Haiti on the basis that inaccessibility was an inherent characteristic of the site. Such would seem to be the case in Machu Picchu, where visitation could otherwise be increased by enhancing train service from Cuzco with more cars or more frequency, and improving the lo-tech mini-bus service from Aguas Calientes. Providing painless access to World Heritage sites whose very essence lies in their remoteness, such as Sigiriya, the Athenian Acropolis, the Citadelle and Machu Picchu, would seem to compromise the integrity of an important part of their significance. Justification for the cable car on the grounds of handicapped accessibility is unfounded, since mini-buses can easily be made accessible, plus the proposed cable car terminal will be farther than the current bus drop-off point. Private organizations in Peru are planning special training programs for the mini-bus drivers in order to make them more professional and to give them a deeper understanding of the site’s significance, and thereby eliminating bad bus service as a valid claim for the cable car.
Another source of controversy lies on the significance of the existing ascent road. Supporters of retention of the road claim that as Bingham’s path to discovering the site, it is an important element of the site’s “second history.” Opposers rightly say that that claim is a myth that has never been proven and that in any event, the road may not follow precisely the Bingham access, and therefore, its retention is unrelated to preservation. They also point out that the importance of the discovery process is frail compared to the transcendence of the site itself, which merits being shared with the most people possible, something that the cable car would accomplish.
As the premier tourist attraction in the country, Peruvian authorities understandably want to capitalize on the maximum economic potential of this resource by increasing visitation to the maximum carrying capacity of 2,200 on-site at any time, as established in studies by the Instituto Nacional de Cultura, UNESCO and Wright Water Engineers. An economic analysis of the enhanced revenue versus the construction expense has not been made available. The total immediate cost of the cable car project will be approximately $10 million. The project will be a public/private venture that will turn operations and maintenance over to the successful bidder. Such intense tourist use of Machu Picchu have led some in the preservation community to accept in defeat that this is the sacrificial site that will have to be turned over to unrestrained tourism exploitation, and that the battle lines for more balanced heritage management will be drawn elsewhere. Yet, for those who have visited this uniquely inspiring site, the breathtaking experience of solitude and isolation; of peaceful equilibrium with the cosmos, and the visual impact of its profoundly non-Western aesthetic are all values that must be preserved forever and to a large degree, experienced in relative privacy. ‘
MORE NEWS FROM PERU: GOOD & BAD
First, the good news: three years ago people were writing off the World Heritage district of Lima as a lost cause. There was little rehabilitation activity; street vendors had taken over the public space, and there was little in the area to attract either locals or tourists. Then, Alberto Andrade was elected Mayor of Lima and things began to change as he took politically risky decisions that luckily paid off. The first to go were the street vendors, as the population cheered in recovering the public space for their own communal use. Under a program named ProLima, Mr Andrade also launched a campaign “adopte un balcón” in an effort to save the characteristic enclosed wooden balconies that adorn many of Lima’s Colonial façades. To date, over $700,000 have been raised and 300 balconies restored. These actions have awakened a preservation consciousness that is reflected in a 65% approval rate for the mayor and would seem to guarantee his re-election in October. But lots remains to be done to bring Lima back. Many important building are still decaying due to underuse, misuse and abuse. Conventillos or tenements still occupy many of the Viceregal palaces. The Quinta Heren, a 19th-century Neo-Classical compound and a site in the World Monuments Watch List, remains unattended and deteriorating.
Other good news comes from Cuzco, where ICOMOS-Peru Vice President Roberto Samanés is directing a pilot project for the revitalization of the historic center of Peru’s other World Heritage City. The project, made possible through a World Monuments Watch grant from American Express, has received the support of local authorities and community groups. Samanés describes the objective as the creation of a more balanced management approach that will conserve the historic fabric of Cuzco while meeting the needs of tourists and traditional residents alike. In recent years, the center of Cuzco has undergone radical changes in land use as its residents have surrendered their traditional spaces to various tourism uses. The ICOMOS Peru project will undertake a pilot project that will analyze and make recommendations based on a small representative area of the historic district. If successful, the experience may be replicated throughout Cuzco.
In the field of training, Peru has never lacked a good supply of very competent preservation professionals. Nevertheless, this capability will be expanded even more through the establishment of a two-year Master Program on Cultural Site Management – the first in the country – at the University of San Marcos in Lima.
Even more good news has to do with the success of some local groups to protect their archaeological sites. In Lambayeque, the effective work of Walter Alva and Susana Meneses in organizing the local population into watchdog patrols for illicit excavations has been well documented in the international press. At the World Heritage Site of Chan Chan, sustained public pressure has led to the recent eviction of squatters from the archaeological zone. Since the 1970s, in the province of Huarochirí near Lima, the local population has also insisted on playing a major part in the preservation of Ruina Mama, the only archaeological site in their district. A memorandum of under-
standing signed in 1975 with the Instituto Nacional de Cultura (INC) enabled them to assume their protective cooperative stewardship. Starting in 1990, however, the INC has failed to respond to requests from the locals for technical and professional support. Recently, the site has been threatened by squatters, and the community wants a fence to protect it. To do so, they have asked the INC to provide the materials, with the community pitching in with the labor. So far, the INC has not responded.
And that brings us to The Bad News, which is Peru’s continued inability to provide protection for its vast archaeological heritage. Like Mexico, Peru is either blessed or cursed with extraordinary sites from the pre-Hispanic period and later from its stature as seat of a rich Spanish Viceroyalty. But unlike Mexico over the course of this century, Peru has not adopted a long-term heritage policy and thus, has never managed to make heritage preservation sustainable. Its national heritage laws have never been sufficiently implemented and regulated to address the full range of threats to its cultural resources. Public institutional structures for preservation are, at best, weak. Peru’s top governmental heritage agency, the Instituto Nacional de Cultura (INC), progressively underfunded since 1990 through budget and personnel reductions, is now overwhelmed by legal and ethical responsibilities that, in spite of good intentions, cannot be met with current allocations. Just its police obligations to avert illegal excavations – one of its many duties – are impossible to enforce for lack of the human resources and equipment necessary for monitoring, quick response and mobilization. According to comments made in June by former INC Director Fernando Silva Santiesteban, conditions are “going from bad to worse, ” adding that recent government actions are “the greatest manifestation of the government’s disinterest and lack of concern for the cultural heritage.” Others are not so harsh, indicating that it is not the government’s disinterest, but its resistance to rely on the advise of the INC and other preservation and cultural organizations that makes public stewardship ineffective. Either way, exactly how much the budget of INC has been reduced in real terms remains impossible to determine with any clarity because of varying rates of inflation and significant fluctuations in the national currency during the last ten years. In spite of the hardship, many inside the INC, especially in the regional offices, continue to work more diligently that ever to achieve the most with what is available. A good example of this is the INC-La Libertad in Trujillo, where Ana Maria Hoyle is completing a Site Management Plan for Chan Chan with support from the World Heritage Center. Next year, the same office will be sponsoring a second Pan American Site Management and Earthen Architecture training program, in association with various international organizations.
A year ago, there seemed to be motive for celebration with the signing of the US-Peru Memorandum of Understanding to Prevent the Illicit Importation into the US of Archaeological and Ethnological Material from Peru. Under the MOU, the US Government closed its markets to a broad range of cultural objects when illicitly exported from Peru. In turn, the Peruvian Government agreed to implement additional protective heritage legislation, strengthen existing institutions, and form new public-private partnerships to enhance the conservation of heritage sites. So far this year, three new laws would appear to negate existing preservation legislation and have magnified traditional threats into even greater peril. One of them is Agricultural Decree 008-98, which Archaeologist Walter Alva, the excavator of Sipán, has termed as “most grave…because it places the interests of expanding agricultural exploitation over those of the cultural heritage.” In effect, unless the site has been previously evaluated, bounded, and declared a protected archaeological site, the new law allows for the transfer of untended public lands to the private sector for agricultural purpose without any further ado. And therein lies the great danger, explains Mr Alva, because 99% of the sites in Peru do not have that documentation. There are no topographic plans and no national archaeological survey. With such lacunae, no one really knows the full extent of the country’s cultural treasures (“Any kick to the ground reveals a new archaeological object,” a Peruvian historian reminds us.). Even Machu Picchu’s boundaries as a National Reserve are not clearly drawn, points out Mr Alva. At present, there is no relief in sight, since the INC has no funding to undertake any methodological field inventories and research. In fact, the field seems ripe for undertaking the application of new methodologies to address these fundamental problems (See article on GIS, page 6). But even in cases where the INC is entitled to review land transfers, it has only 15 working days to issue a report of its findings, and said report will not binding. Alberto Martorell, a preservation lawyer in Lima, adds that the process established by the new law is exactly opposed to UNESCO’s recommendations. In Trujillo, conservator Ricardo Gamarra commented that the conservation of iconic sites like Huaca de la Luna and Huaca del Sol are also threatened by the new law. Archaeologist Duccio Bonavía captured the drama of the situation in stating hyperbolically that “this decree is the death certificate of our heritage.”
The second piece of controversial legislation is Tourism Decree 017-98, which many claim will convert heritage resources into economic commodities beyond the protective reach of existing preservation law. The decree provides for the establishment of Priority Tourism Development Zones and Tourism Reserves, directly under the control of the Ministry of Industry and Tourism, whose principal driving concern is foreign revenue enhancement. In effect, such action will distance heritage sites in tourist zones from the already weakened mantle of the INC. In addition, the preservation and cultural communities fear that their opinion will not be sought when heritage sites are developed or even altered for tourism purposes.
A third decree has to do with the regularization of land titling by officially transferring property to squatters. This is a highly controversial approach to land management often used in Latin America for political benefit, including the ability to bring new landowners into the tax roster. The problem is that some of the squatters have settled on archaeological sites that will pass into private hands without any assessment of their cultural potential. Worse yet are allegations that some squatters purposefully settle on archaeologically-rich zones with an eye to their exploitation. Historically, the illicit excavations and sale of archaeological artifacts in Peru have been an easy way for the poorer sectors of the population to supplement their income. There is fear that the ability to establish squatter rights and subsequent title to archaeological sites without any controls will bring an additional rush of settlements on suspected and unrecorded archaeological zones.
The national press, especially Lima’s highly influential El Comercio and Trujillo’s La Industria, have dedicated considerable space to the controversy, reflecting their long-standing commitment to the protection of the nation’s cultural heritage (the newspapers report that news on cultural heritage conservation helps sell papers.). Many others in the preservation community have unexpectedly joined in the denunciation of the three laws. Archaeology and Anthropology students at the universities of San Marcos and Federico Villarreal have held press conferences and public street demonstrations demanding the protection of heritage sites and repeal of the decrees.
While exasperation is often rampant among Peruvians concerned for their cultural heritage, there are constructive solutions being proposed. In Arequipa, historian Eusebio Quiroz Paz has proposed cooperative agreements between INC and universities to undertake archaeological surveys and registration. In Lima’s School of International Relations and Negotiations of the Ludwig Von Mises Organization for Culture, Development and Tourism, Mariana Mould de Paese and Gonzalo Valdez Orrego are expanding the scope of heritage training to the prevention of illicit traffic by focusing on specific public sectors, such as the Customs Superintendency, in order to stop illicit traffic at the border. Ms Mould de Pease, who recently visited US/ICOMOS, continues her research for applicable overseas models that could meet Peru’s current needs. The School has also instituted a Certificate Program in Historic Preservation and Tourism and is active in creating broad public awareness through the inclusion of new professions not traditionally involved in the challenges of preservation. ‘
THE ONGOING PLIGHT OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE SITES
By Pamela Jerome
In the past few decades, great strides have been taken in developing our awareness and abilities to care for culturally significant properties. Historic preservation has become an accepted part of our community efforts to conserve those places we consider valuable. Countless training programs have been established to ensure that there is an adequate number of professionals capable of dealing with the complexity of preserving historic structures and environs. However, one area has been noticeably neglected – the conservation of archaeological heritage sites. This is difficult to understand when the recognized value of archaeological sites is often universal.
How has the neglect of archaeological sites been allowed to become a routine? The significance of archaeology, by its very definition, is the extrapolation of irreplaceable information from the past. At the same time, archaeological methodology for retrieving information is destructive, because the investigation of a site’s scientific value through excavation typically contributes to the accelerated deterioration or destruction of the site itself.
Why, then, are archaeological excavations permitted? The object of most excavations is research, often in context with the comparative evaluation of other similar sites. This is a valid endeavor that enriches our knowledge of the past. The problem lies in the fact that archaeologists are not trained in the conservation and management issues, and as a result, many do not recognize the need for professionals who are. Although most archaeologists have accepted the necessity for objects conservators, the need for an additional type of conservator, one who deals with the immoveable artifacts, is a frightening and costly process, and one often disallowed by funding sources. With public spending for cultural activities at an all time low, excavations operate on shoe-string budgets and rarely can sequester funding to cover the costs of site conservation. Once the investigation is over, sites are left exposed and essentially abandoned, their fragile remains deteriorating in an uncontrollable environment, enhanced by the onslaught of well-meaning cultural tourists.
On the other side of the equation, most host countries do not have the financial or technical means to provide the framework for the conservation and management of excavated sites, yet revenues from frequently visited sites are an incentive to keep them accessible to the public. Sites are selected for public display with little research as to the impact on the stability of the site itself. Archaeology can take on political overtones as well, when investigations are linked to national pride in ancestry, and so, excavation continues to be encouraged.
As architectural and landscape conservators, the stabilization of archaeological sites is probably the most challenging area of our field. We are typically well trained to cope with historic buildings, but ignorant about the complexities presented by archaeological structures. There are technical as well as philosophical reasons why the treatment of archaeological sites differs significantly from that of historic sites. First, we are dealing with incomplete architecture, the lack of a roof being one of the most critical problems. Also, the fabric is usually more fragile, especially in the case of excavated sites, which tend to go through a type of climatic shock when they are exposed from burial. Third, unlike historic structures, archaeological sites cannot be reinhabited and so are less likely to receive routine maintenance. Further, the Venice Charter precludes reconstruction with the exception of anastylosis, and the introduction of protective shelters always affects the presentation and interpretation of the site. The list goes on and on.
So, what can be done for archaeological sites? The following suggestions are by no means exhaustive or original. Historic preservation training programs need to introduce methods of archaeological site stabilization into their curriculums. Archaeologists should be required to take introductory management and conservation courses as part of their training as well. For the last five years, Columbia University’s Historic Preservation Program has offered a specific course in this field with the encouraging statistic of 25% attendance by archaeologists and anthropologists.
The linkage of site conservation to issuance of excavation permits has been effective in Cyprus and Turkey. Foundations and other sources of funding should revise their policy to require the identification of comprehensive management and conservation plans as part of proposals for excavation. Government agencies responsible for cultural activities need to closely coordinate with those responsible for tourism, and funding for archaeological site maintenance should be actively sought from the tourism industry. The World Monuments Fund 100 Most Endangered Sites program has used this approach to some advantage.
Less excavation of new sites is necessary and more revisiting of existing sites, both for scientific information and integrity of cultural significance through stabilization efforts. Archaeologists must recognize that excavation comes with responsibilities, not only to publish the information, but to maintain the site. Finally, more architectural conservators need to take on the challenge of archaeological site preservation.
Ms Jerome is a registered architect and architectural conservator living in New York, where she is on the faculty of Columbia University. Her specialty is conservation of archaeological sites. Recently she lectured at ICCROM on the design of protective shelters over archaeological ruins.
WORLD HERITAGE SITE GIS USER GROUP ESTABLISHED WITH ESRI SUPPORT
By Douglas Comer
A geographical information system (GIS) user group for managers of World Heritage Sites, and for researchers working at World Heritage Sites who are affiliated with non-profit organizations, is being established with the support of the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI Corporation), makers of ArcInfo, ArcCad, and ArcView software.
There are at present 552 sites around the globe that have been identified by UNESCO as embodying truly outstanding cultural or natural values. The management of World Heritage Sites poses especially difficult problems. They are subject to ongoing destructive processes such as erosion, vegetative damage, weathering and chemical deterioration of stone, flooding, and looting. In addition, tourism inevitably introduces threats in the form of wear and tear on fabric, vandalism, destructive and intrusive development, and expanded markets for looted antiquities. Yet managers of World Heritage Sites often find themselves without basic environmental information and lacking an inventory of archaeological and other cultural sites and features. Such information that exists frequently has not been ordered in ways that make it available for use in arriving at management decisions. Shortages of financial and technical resources often render attempts to collect and make accessible such essential, basic information problematic at best.
An economical way to identify environmental zones, locations of structures, archaeological sites and features, and the relationships among them is by assembling pertinent data in a GIS. One important means by which data can be acquired is by the analysis of aerial imagery, obtained from satellites as well as airplanes and other aircraft. Useful data may also be obtained in numerous other ways, among them by examining historic maps, technical reports, and archaeological, hydrological, and geological surveys. Data from each source is arranged in map layers, called themes. Viewed together, these can illuminate the interplay among cultural features and environmental parameters such as vegetation, soils, hydrology, land use, and terrain aspects.
Environmental characteristics, of course, are relevant not only to historic and prehistoric human occupation patterns; in the present, a World Heritage Site is not uncommonly occupied by an indigenous group that regards it as a part of their homeland. A World Heritage Site is also often subject to a tide of new arrivals that have been attracted by economic opportunities that arise with its designation as such. Thus these environmental parameters, and monitoring the ways that they change, are keys to understanding threats to World Heritage Sites. A GIS can be the foundation upon which a solid site management infrastructure is built.
The World Heritage Site GIS User Group Program is scheduled to begin on October 1, 1998. It will coordinate ESRI support, the services of volunteers, and the efforts of World Heritage Site managers and researchers with interests at World Heritage Sites who desire to share GIS expertise and experience. The goals of the program are to facilitate the use of GIS as a management and research tool at World Heritage Sites through:
_ Sharing of GIS expertise through e-mail and, eventually, periodic meetings.
_ Providing assistance in the acquisition of aerial imagery and data sets.
_ Sharing of aerial imagery and data sets for use in specific projects.
_ Advocating the needs of the World Heritage Site community to donors of computer hardware and software
_ Providing or helping to acquire technical support in GIS and remote sensing imagery analysis to the World Heritage Site community.
Grants for GIS software and training will be made available to qualified applicants through ESRI. Douglas C. Comer firstname.lastname@example.org and Paul Box email@example.com will serve as World Heritage Site GIS User Group Program Coordinators. ESRI Conservation Program Coordinator is Charles Convis firstname.lastname@example.org. For additional information, visit the ESRI Conservation Program web site at www.esri.com/conservation.
Dr Comer is Manager of the National Park Service Applied Archaeology Center. He has adapted GIS systems to site management in a number of sites, including the World Heritage Site of Petra in Jordan, where he was part of the US/ICOMOS Site Management Team two years ago. Currently, he is in the process of applying the system to Angkor Borei in Cambodia and to the Gettysburg Battlefield in Pennsylvania. Dr Comer has just returned from attending the meeting of the Indo Pacific Prehistory Association in Malaka, Malaysia, where he led a session on the application of the management standards that he developed for the Southeast Asia Ministers of Education Center for Archaeology and the Arts (SPAFA).
US/ICOMOS A PARTNER IN CULTURAL RESOURCES PROJECT IN GHANA
US AID has awarded a grant to Conservation International and US/ICOMOS to carry out a natural resources conservation and historic preservation project in Central Region, Ghana. This is a two-year project to build upon and make sustainable the work done under the larger, six-year long first phase.
The cultural and natural resources of the region are great: many of the more than 40 forts and castles along the Ghanaian coast, the former Gold Coast, are located within the boundaries of Central Region. These structures date from the 16th century and are the oldest European structures in sub-Saharan Africa. They were the focal point of a long history of trade with Europe and the New World. They were the center of trade for the abundant natural resources such as gold and cocoa as well as the unspeakable trade in human lives. Cape Coast and Elmina Castles and Fort St. Jago are World Heritage Sites, cultural resources of international significance and tangible witnesses to the long and complex history of the Central Region of Ghana.
Under the natural resource conservation component of Phase 1, lands that comprised a nature reserve were combined with donated tribal lands to form Kakum National Park, the first sub-Saharan rainforest national park in Ghana. A visitor=s center with a rainforest exhibition, gift shop and snack bar were built, as well as a spectacular canopy walkway that has been an incredible tourist draw.
Under the historic preservation and the museum component, the Castles and Fort were restored; museums, museum shops, public rest rooms and other tourism infrastructure were created or improved, significantly increasing the volume and the satisfaction of visitors.
A major achievement of the first phase of the project was the creation of a new Ghana Heritage Conservation Trust (GHCT), a nonprofit institution with a Board of Trustees of national and international repute, with an endowment from US AID. The GHCT is mandated to preserve, protect, maintain and develop the cultural and natural resources of Cape Coast, Elmina and Kakum with their environs for the benefit of local inhabitants and tourists, today and in the future.
Phase 2 of this project will switch from funding extensive restoration of the castles to focus on a modest program to promote protection of the historic core and individual structures within the town, through pilot programs carried out in Cape Coast.
The goal of Phase 2 is to promote the sustainable preservation of Cape Coast and Elmina Castles and Fort St. Jago, and the historic towns in which they are situated, by
_ Creating a mechanism for the integrated, long-term planning for preservation and tourism related development;
_ Strengthening the regulatory and stewardship institutions which control them;
_ Initiating conservation work within the town of Cape Coast;
_ Informing and educating the public of the benefits of preservation.
Activities that will be undertaken that will accomplish the following objectives:
_ To conduct a charette of national and international experts to develop a Conservation and Tourism Development Plan of Cape Coast
_ To develop a digitized inventory of Cape Coast that will serve the local community and perhaps serve as the model for a national register.
_ To restore Government House, a significant structure in the historic core, and return it to use as the permanent home of the Ghana Historic Conservation Trust.
_ To promote community awareness and understanding of conservation through public programs and performances, community meetings, training programs, a small-scale program of private home and business owner improvement grants.
_ To initiate the development of education programs for the local community and informational literature for tourists.
_ To initiate a public arts program to develop creative and artistic solutions for signage in the historic town.
To carry out this program on site, US/ICOMOS has engaged Gina Haney (US/ICOMOS Summer Intern 1996) as Project Coordinator. As Deputy Coordinator, US/ICOMOS has contracted the services of Ferdinand Addo, Ghanaian architect (and former US/ICOMOS Summer Intern, 1997). The project manager is US/ICOMOS Director of Programs Ellen Delage.
Background & Context:
In response to a request from the Regional Minister of the Central Region in Ghana, US AID awarded a grant in 1991 to a consortium of non-profit institutions to carry out a natural resources conservation and historic preservation project. The aim was to develop a sound basis for expanded international and national tourism through the conservation and protection of the cultural and natural resources in Central Region. US/ICOMOS was a partner during the first years of the project, managed by MUCIA (Midwest Universities Consortium for International Activities), along with Conservation International, Smithsonian Institution and the University of Minnesota Tourism Center. US/ICOMOS designed and managed the preservation component during the first years of Phase 1, which focused on the restoration of Cape Coast and Elmina Castles and Fort St. Jago. After US/ICOMOS withdrew from its official role, contact with the project was maintained through the US/ICOMOS International Summer Intern Program, which initiated a US-Ghana exchange with the national ICOMOS Committee, and sent U.S. interns to work in Cape Coast for the past three years.
Our Partner: Conservation International
Conservation International (CI) is a field-based, non-profit organization that protects the Earth’s biologically richest areas and helps the people who live there improve their quality of life. CI uses science, economics, policy, and community involvement to promote biodiversity conservation in tropical rain forests and other endangered ecosystems worldwide. Through CI’s environmentally sensitive and economically sound approach, resource protection is good business for everyone.
For further information, contact Ellen Delage at US/ICOMOS, tel: 202-842-1862, -1866; fax: 202-842-1861; e-mail: email@example.com
IMAGINEERING THE PAST: HISTORIC HOTELS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA
By Fergus Maclaren
Walt Disney pioneered the concept of “imagineering” – sanitized versions of the past reflected in the historical streetscape of Mainstreet USA and the compartmentalized versions of international architecture at EPCOT. Urban affairs pundit Michael Sorkin has said that “Disney theme parks represent museums of living facts, and showplaces of beauty and magic, filled with the accomplishments, the joys, and the hopes of the world we live in.” The reality, he adds, is that “local histories are co-opted, without their corresponding indigenous social and political geographies.” History ends up being replicated and commodified into a sell-able product. In this instance, it is the historic hotels of Southeast Asia that are being “imagineered” in both name and design.
When I was first in Penang in 1994, sitting out on the back deck of the gently graying E&O Hotel in George Town, I sipped Gin Slings and listened to the gentle creak of teak folding chairs, while casting eyes towards ships travelling between Penang Island and Butterworth. With few exceptions, the hotel had retained its original exterior and interior finishes, making me feel as if I was reliving a Somerset Maugham colonial-era tale.
It was with a sharp jolt when I returned this spring to see the E&O completely gutted with the entry retained as the only vestige of what was to be a rejuvenation of the old dowager. In reality, it was probably the name value that prevented the original hotel’s complete eradication. Unfortunately, neighboring structures did not fare as well in this urban renewal process, with the demolition run of nine state-owned neighboring waterfront colonial buildings bounded by Leith Street Ghaut and Farquhar Street. The buildings, which include the former Public Works Department headquarters and several government quarters, were demolished to make way for the new Ritz Carlton Hotel.
The E&O is the last of the grand colonial era traveller’s hotels to undergo massive transformation. Its former sister hotels owned by the Sarkies Brothers including the Strand in Yangon
(Rangoon) and Raffles in Singapore have seen money pumped in and alterations on a grand scale to attract wealthy western tourists. In particular, the Raffles Hotel underwent a process of restoration that has been referred to as “Raffleization” – complete remakes, stripping the old down to a few bricks, and then tastefully refurbishing with reproduction fittings and finishes.
In Vietnam – the region’s hot new travel destination – hotels have reverted their revolutionary names and iconography to their original colonial status. The Thong Nhat or “Reunification” Hotel in Hanoi has returned to its original name, the Hotel Metropole, and tacked on a seven-story business center onto the old structure. In Ho Chi Minh City, evidence of nostalgia is everywhere. The big hotels now use their former colonial-era names – Majestic, Continental, Caravelle and Rex. In May, the 24-floor, 335-room Delta Caravelle reopened, comprised of two
buildings: the original ten-storey Caravelle Hotel and the brand-
new 24-storey tower. Its refurbishment costs stand at an estimated US$65 million.
The owners of these hotels are favored by the three golden
rules of real estate: location, location, location. As well, they can trade on the “goodwill” generated by their properties’ storied past. The reward to hotels pursuing constant upgrades and image-building is the higher rates they can charge to clients. The cherished theme is profit generated per room. This can be compromised from a hotelier’s standpoint since old hotels can be expensive to restore and their configurations do not necessarily match the needs of modern travellers.
Hotels are like house in that they require constant maintenance, especially with the constant flow of guest traffic. The highly competitive hotel industry also requires constant reinvention and service upgrades to ensure that the image is kept fresh and new, while holding up to evolving established industry standards. The standard litany of hotel services has expanded beyond room
and valet guest services to include mini-bars, person-to-person international direct dial, conference and meeting facilities, and full-function business centers. These are expected by travellers and, in turn, provide a healthy profit for hotels.
But something is amiss here. The process of “Raffleization” has added a new shiny exterior to these structures while deliberately removing their historic cores. Hoteliers are trading on the name, without giving visitors the context of change.
It is as if one were to say that the Coliseum in Rome needs to be cleaned and painted, and should have a number of t-shirt and souvenir shops tacked on to “add value” to the site. The process is worsened as in the case of the E&O. It will be left standing alone after its neighboring historic structures are torn down to be replaced by a modern competitor, with its own fabled name and reputation.
The sham is played on the guest that believes that he or she is reliving a true experience, i.e., that Graham Greene slept here, Rudyard Kipling drank here, etc. The truth is that the authenticity of these places is entrenched in the collective memory of history or novels. Their modern guises are contemporized portraits, however, that distort heritage and market values to generate profits.
It is a philosophical dilemma, trying to reconcile the fact that restoration and upgrading are necessary to make these structures viable again. They would certainly be demolished otherwise. This is a moot point, given that these historic hotels have already been transformed. Yet, the full story should be told to travellers and guests in these hotels’ reincarnations. Disney has imagined a cleaner, unencumbered vision of society; at least they are upfront about it.
Fergus Maclaren is a member of ICOMOS Canada and a principal of Definitive Development in Calgary. This article is reprinted from the AWPNUC Newsletter (Asia & West Pacific Network for Urban Conservation), headquartered in Penang, Malaysia.
LINKING CULTURAL TOURISM WITH HERITAGE MANAGEMENT
The National Register of Historic Places has developed an innovative practical application for the roster of thousands of historic sites that constitute the history of our country. DISCOVER OUR SHARED HERITAGE, a Travel Itinerary Series, allows the public to explore our past through visiting registered historic places which reflect major aspects of the history of the United States through its architecture, archaeology, engineering, landscape and urbanism. The itineraries are self-guided tours which include excellent maps locating and linking places of interest to tourists, a brief description of each site’s importance, color photographs and information about visitation and how to get there. Printed in full color in a handy foldout map-format that can be stuffed in the backpack or the glove compartment, the Series’ first four itineraries are Early History of the California Coast; Along the Georgia-Florida Coast; The American Southwest; and South and West Texas. Maps are available for purchase for $5/each from NCSHPO, 444 North Capitol St NW, Ste 342, Washington, DC 20001. The travel itineraries were made possible through a gift from the American Express Company.
In addition to the written word, the National Register’s entry onto the tourism field has gone electronic and offers additional itineraries at its WebSite: www.cr.nps.gov/nr Spotlighting different regions and themes across the country, itineraries have been completed for the Underground Railroad, Detroit, Seattle, Baltimore and Chicago, with additional ones to be added in the near future. ‘
MORE ON ILLICIT TRAFFIC
Through the support of the United States Information Agency, US/ICOMOS participated in a national seminar sponsored by the Bolivian Committee of the International Council of Museums (ICOM) in the World Heritage city of Sucre. The symposium addressed three major themes of continuous concern in Latin America, as defined by ICOM-Bolivia under the presidency of Marisabel Alvarez Plata: illicit traffic of cultural objects, sustainability of conservation, and museum management. US/ICOMOS Executive Director Gustavo Araoz spoke on the first of these topics, emphasizing the cooperative role that the United States can play through the establishment of international agreements to prevent the illicit importation of cultural objects into our country. While illicit traffic is rampant in some Latin American countries, it is not by any means concentrated in the region. Chinese custom officials report that they uncovered more than 600 cases last year and seized 11,200 items, while the police recovered an additional 3,000. Cooperation between China and Scotland Yard led to the return of nearly 4,000 stolen items from the United Kingdom last April.
In Bolivia US/ICOMOS joined ICOM representatives from other hemispheric countries at this event, including Monica Garrido and Hector Arena of Argentina, Lorena San Roman of Costa Rica, Martha Diaz of Cuba, Soledad Kingman of Ecuador, Oscar Centurion of Paraguay, Luis Repetto of Peru, Teresita Pombo of Uruguay and Maria Ismenia Toledo of Venezuela. All foreign delegates presented papers that contributed to a deeper understanding of challenges in the region. In addition, Yves de Monerval, UNESCO Representative to Bolivia, provided an ample overview of the increasing problem of the illicit multi-billion dollar traffic of cultural resources, including its linkage to money laundering operation by the narcotraffic industry.
After the Seminar in Sucre, Mr Araoz traveled to La Paz where he joined Kate Marie Byrnes, US Cultural Affairs Officer, Marisabel Alvarez Plata, and Jorge Velarde, Director of Bolivia’s Cultural Heritage in the Vice Ministry of Culture, in a Round Table
sponsored by USIS at the US Embassy to discuss the establishment of a memorandum of understanding between the US and Bolivia. An emergency agreement to protect illicit importation into the US of Aymara textiles from the Coromo region expired two years ago after being renewed to its maximum term. Under that agreement, Coromo textiles were seized in the US and returned to their communities of origin in Bolivia. Bolivia is now seeking a new, much broader agreement that would expand protection to all its archaeological heritage, as well as colonial paintings and artifacts with ethnographic significance. While colonial heritage is not a category usually protected by the United States, in the case of Bolivia, the art forms of this period were so deeply syncretized with indigenous expressions that they have acquired tremendous importance to the many ethnic groups that constitute the country.
In an ironic twist of fate, on the very day of the US Embassy round table, thieves in Coromo stole an important cache of ethnographic and cultural objects, including some silver artifacts.
During his stay in Bolivia, Mr Araoz met with members of ICOMOS Bolivia, including its President, Jose de Mesa, Mireya Muñoz, Teresa Gisbert, Carlos Villagomez, Gaston Gallardo and Elizabeth Torres. Among the topics discussed were the next year’s General Assembly in Mexico, exchange of summer interns in 1999 and a greater attention for archaeological concerns within ICOMOS. ‘
NEWS FROM ICOMOS FRANCE
Every year, an important activity organized by the Section Française de l’ICOMOS are the International Technical Days – journées techniques internationales. The 1999 journées will be held in Rennes from 10 to 12 December on the theme of securing the built heritage. The objective is to examine mechanisms either in place or to be developed to counteract risks arising from catastrophic events. A working group for the event is being led by Isabelle Pallot-Frossard and Daniel Lefèvre, members of the French ICOMOS Committee for Management Professionals. The topic will be treated in four parts: violent historic destructions; actions during the actual catastrophe; building behavior in response to winds, seismic forces, lightning; and prevention.
ICOMOS France also reports that the French Ministry of Territorial Management and the Environment has entrusted it to undertake a comparative study on legislative principles affecting significant sites and landscapes in Western Europe. The UK, Italy, Germany and the Netherlands are expected to form a principal focus of this study. Anyone with pertinent knowledge to contribute is asked to contact Ms Nancy Bouché at ICOMOS France.
Finally, ICOMOS France reports that it will undertake once again this year a training and exchange program for staff of the Ministry of Infrastructure (Equipement). In 1998, the program was organized around towns whose policies presented special interest on matters of urban planning, heritage and housing. Rochefort and Bayonee, both Village-Members of ICOMOS France, received the trainees and shared with them the relevant experience of their communities. Three historic towns will be included in the program this year.
For information on specific activities of the French ICOMOS, write ICOMOS France, 62, rue Saint-Antoine, 75186 Paris cedex 4, France. ‘
US/ICOMOS LAUNCHES INTERNATIONAL MID CAREER EXCHANGES
After years of planning and wishing, the US/ICOMOS International Mid-Career Exchange Program was launched this summer with the arrival of Dominique Michel of the Musées de France and Adam Maksay of the Transylvania Trust in Romania. Ms Michel undertook an ambitious study tour that took her to Washington, DC, Williamsburg, Chicago, Boston, Harper’s Ferry, WV, New York City and Philadelphia. During her stay she aimed to establish permanent contact with a number of public and private institutions that manage museums in historic buildings in the United States. Next year, the Musées de France will receive a representative form the United States’ National Park Service to undertake similar explorations in France. In contrast to the sweeping approach of Ms Michel, Mr Maksay’s internship focused narrowly on the processes and techniques for documenting historic structures. To that end, he worked at the Washington, DC, HABS/HAER office of the National Park Service studying administrative as well as technical methodologies for developing documentation standards and archiving. Next year, a delegate from HABS/HAER will visit the Transylvania Trust to continue the exchange of experiences and enhance the documentation of Transylvanian heritage sites. Both of these internships were funded through grants from the National Park Service. The reciprocity internships next year will be funded by the Musees de France and the Transylvania Trust.
A third exchange began this summer also between Cornerstones Community Partnerships in Santa Fe, New Mexico, and the Fundación Navapalos in Soria, Spain. Both institutions foster community development by reinforcing traditional building and settlement patterns, with specific attention to the perpetuation of earthen architecture construction techniques. This exchange is part of the larger cooperative actions between US/ICOMOS and the Comité Nacional Español del ICOMOS.
The purpose of the US/ICOMOS International Mid-Career Exchange Program is to foster the establishment of permanent links between U.S. preservation institutions with affinity organizations in other countries, thus fulfilling the ICOMOS mission of expanding the global preservation network. Unlike its older sibling program, the US/ICOMOS International Summer Intern Program, each of the Mid-Career exchanges requires detailed tailoring to meet and match the specific needs of participating institutions and individuals. For that reason, and also because they are envisioned to form permanent cooperation, Mid Career exchanges are more costly to identify, plan and support. US/ICOMOS continues its work to develop a strong funding base that will permit the program to develop to its full potential. ‘
PROTECTION OF THE MEDIEVAL MONASTERIES IN KOSOVO
By Svetlana Popovic
The Foundation of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments 1947 in Belgrade (Serbia), was the turning point in the long process of evaluation and protection of the cultural heritage in that part of the world. Soon after the formation of the central Institute in Belgrade, regional chapters were opened in the lesser cities. They have been successively transformed into Regional Institutes for the Protection of Cultural Monuments. Three institutions are today responsible for the preservation and protection of cultural monuments at Kosovo: the central Institute in Belgrade and two regional Institutes located in Priština and in Prizren.
Medieval monasteries and churches represent the most numerous category of all registered monuments listed as the cultural heritage of Kosovo. More than two hundred churches, monasteries, cave-cells and various anchoretic abodes from the Middle Ages are still waiting to be properly studied and preserved. Although, some of the monuments became a subject of substantial preservation actions in a protracted period and few were subjected to the procedure of legal protection, a great number of them still wait for proper treatment. Many of these monuments represent an important element in the identity of the Serbian people and their ancestral ties to the landscape.
The historical background for the numerous churches and monasteries situated in Kosovo begins with the Early Christian period and continued through Byzantine and Medieval Serbian periods. Some of the Late Antique towns such as Ulpiana (near modern Priština), and Teranda (modern Prizren), became later, in their remodeled form, important Byzantine cities with episcopal sees, and in the Middle Ages they also represented the very important Serbian bishoprics of Liplijan (Ulpiana) and Prizren. When the autocephalous Serbian Church was proclaimed in 1219, the region of Kosovo was part of Medieval Serbian State. Three out of ten bishoprics were situated at Kosovo at the beginning of the thirteenth century: The Church of the Virgin at Hvosno, the Church of the Virgin at Gra…anica (near modern Priština), and the Church of Our Lady of Ljeviša in Prizren. In the fourteenth century the episcopal see at St. Stephen monastery (Banjska near modern Kosovska Mitrovica), was added and the Patriarchate was proclaimed in 1346 with the see in Peƒ (and is still an active Patriarchate today.) At the end of the thirteenth and at the beginning of the fourteenth century the Serbian royal residences were located in the central area of Kosovo (Pauni, Nerodimlja, Svr…in and Štimlja), around a once existing lake which was mentioned as lago di Suerzagno in old maps from the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. Archaeological sites are partly excavated there, and are still waiting to be preserved.
However, the most significant medieval monuments of universal value situated at Kosovo are the monasteries of De…ani, Gra…anica, Banjska, the Patriarchated of Peƒ and the Church of Our Lady of Ljeviša at Prizren.
The monastery of Decani was founded by the Serbian king Stefan Uroš III Decanski and his son, future tsar Dušan between 1327 and 1335. According to the inscription above the southern door of the narthex, the architect was a Dalmatian Franciscan Vita of Kotor. This monastery is a vast five aisle, basilica with dome, executed in alternating bands of light and dark marble, elaborately decorated with first-class Romanesque sculpture on the facades and entirely decorated in the in interior with Byzantine frescoes. This is the only completely extant fresco program within the entire Byzantine world of the fourteenth century. Further more, De…ani is unique for possessing the original church furnishings: an altar screen of purple marble, royal seats, icons, a baptismal font, a rich treasury and the tomb of its founder. The frescoes are in good state of preservation. Conservation work started recently on the sculptural decoration of the church, including facade cleaning. Four years ago (in 1994) the monastery of De…ani was nominated to the World Heritage List. The nomination is still pending.
The monastery of Gra…anica was built on the Kosovo plain, five miles south of Priština, by Serbian king Milutin Nemanjic around 1321. Gra…anica played an important role in cultural and religious of the area, being the residence of Lipljan bishops from the time of its foundation. This five dome church with its fresco decoration is not only important for local artistic developments, but further Anowhere else has Late Byzantine architecture achieved a more richly fantastic exterior design than in this, the latest of Milutin’s churches@ (R. Krautheimer). The church is in a good state of preservation, while the monastic buildings need repair.
The monastery of St. Stephen at Banjska (near Kosovska Mitrovica), is a royal mausoleum of the Serbian king Milutin. The church was badly damaged during conversion into a mosque in the sixteenth century during Turkish rule and was restored in the 1940=s. The vas medieval monastery complex was recently excavated with refectory, cells, tower, encircling wall and residential buildings. The medieval monastery buildings need conservation.
The Patriarchate of Peƒ represents a monastery settlement with a group of churches (three) dating from the early days of the thirteenth century with later additions from the fourteenth century. All three churches are painted with frescoes. In addition to its great artistic values, the Patriarchate of Peƒ is the burial place of Serbian bishops and patriarchs, and as such represents the most significant spiritual shrine of its people. The main, single aisle church with dome was dedicated to the Holy Apostles. In the fourteenth century, on its northern and southern sides, churches dedicated to St. Demetrios and to Virgin Hodegetria, respectively were constructed. The complex represents the unique surviving example of ecclesiastical burials (bishops and patriarchs tombs) from the Late Byzantium. The state of preservation of both architecture and frescoes is good.
The Church of Our Lady of Ljeviša at Prizren was founded by Serbian king Milutin in 1307. Milutin erected the foundation on the remains of a Byzantine basilica, probably tenth-century in origin. This was one of Milutin=s large five-domed undertakings and the church of the Prizren bishops. It seems to have been used for Christian worship until the eighteenth century, when the Turks transformed it into the Dñuma mosque. They altered some parts of the building and covered the walls with a layer of mortar both inside and out. The church remained in this condition until 1950 when a thorough restoration was undertaken. At that time the frescoes were rediscovered and cleaned. Recent unfortunate developments at Kosovo have created dangerous situations not only for people but for monuments too. All of the five unique medieval monuments mentioned thus far are seriously endangered by the ongoing clashes around them. Their physical existence as well as their monumental architecture and fresco paintings are insecure, and easily could become a target and damaged, either by accident or deliberately. In these circumstances the international associations involved in monument protection should investigate the possibilities for protection and react in time. Otherwise, it could be too late!
Ms Popovic is an architect, historian and conservator from Belgrade who now resides in the United States. She is one of the world’s foremost experts on Byzantine Monastic Architecture in the Balkan Region.
CHILEAN LANDMARKS DEAL WITH PRIVATE SECTOR
The construction of a telephone antenna and the road leading to it have caused the destruction of the perimeter walls of an Inca fortress that marks the southernmost reach of the Inca Empire. Located atop the Cerro Grande de la Compañía, the site location was well known and its excavation over three years has confirmed important information regarding the layout of Incaic hilltop fortifications, as well as evidence of earlier and subsequent indigenous settlements, including some that formed bases for the resistance to the Spanish conquest of the 16th century. Extant structures on the site consist of stone masonry walls that define the defense mechanisms as well as dwellings and storehouses.
In spite of the loss of an important part of this site, Chile’s preservation authorities are trying to capitalize positively from the loss to make sure that it never happens again. Maria Elena Noël, an archaeologist with the National Council on Monuments reports in Chile’s Review of Cultural Heritage that the site will now be better protected and interpreted as a result of the mitigation dialogue between the government and the telephone company, who has committed to assume responsibility for the damages. The partial destruction of the site has also created a greater awareness about the need for tighter legislation and government oversight concerning the responsibilities of the private sector towards heritage sites, as well as for sanctions for those who destroy it. In addition, it has occasioned a growing national debate about the relationship between economic development and the cultural heritage, a discourse that echoes growing concerns worldwide. ‘
PROTECTION FOR INDONESIAN HERITAGE
The Asia West Pacific Network for Urban Conservation (AWPNUC) reports that a new organization, the Sumatran Heritage Trust has been established to provide a common voice for heritage matters for all the peoples of Sumatra, working to conserve, enhance and popularize the natural, cultural and built heritage of the largest island of the Indonesian archipelago. All areas of Sumatra are currently suffering from problems caused by unrestricted exploitation, unplanned development and the disempowerment of local populations.
Set up by local businessmen, professionals and universities in Medan as a coordinating organization, the Trust will carry out its activities through branches and networks. Chapters will be set up wherever there is a critical mass of people interested in conserving their heritage. Activities will be run by volunteers, mostly university students. Among plans to disseminate their work and raise funds, the Trust also envisions publication of books and a newsletter. Other work already under way includes an Inventory, Guidelines and Pilot Project for the port of Belawan, Medan, and a seminar held last July.
For more information, contact Sumatra Heritage Trust, Fax: 011-62 71 71 44 11, or e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org ‘
LAOTIAN DELEGATION VISITS US/ICOMOS
On July 10th, a delegation of Laotian newsmen interested in culture visited the office of US/ICOMOS to find out more about Historic preservation in the United States and the international activities of our organization. To US/ICOMOS, Laos is of particular importance because of its rich cultural legacy and its lack of an ICOMOS National Committee. In addition, Laos has several sites pending inclusion in the World Heritage List.
Reminding the delegation of the awesome responsibility of the media to foster heritage awareness, Mr Araoz underlined several ways in which US/ICOMOS could begin cooperation with the Laotian preservation community. Of particular interest to Savankhone Razmountry, Deputy Director and Editor-in-Chief of the Vientiane Times is the potential for exchanging young preservationists through the US/ICOMOS International Summer Intern Exchange Program. Mr Razmountry offered to take information back to the appropriate officials in the ministry in charge of archaeology and museums, and to become an advocate for the participation of Laos in the program.
The delegation from Laos also included Somchay Phimphasouk of the Vientiane Mai, Houmpheng Sinepaseuth of Pasasonem and Vanthong Phonchanheuang, Director of the Lao News Agency. ‘
FROM THE US/ICOMOS BRICK MASONRY COMMITTEE: TERRA COTTA CONCERNS
The US/ICOMOS Brick Masonry Specialized Committee has established a Terra Cotta Task Force, under Committee Co-Chair Judy Jacob, Architectural Conservator at the NPS Northeast Cultural Resources Center, Building Conservation Branch in New York. The Task Force will address the special needs of glazed terra cotta, and intends to create a resource guide for information on the history of its manufacture. Any relevant information that can be provided on the subject will be gratefully received. Please contact Ms Jacob at (212) 825-6877 or by e-mail: email@example.com
REPORT FROM THE US/ICOMOS COMMITTEE ON TELECOMMUNICATIONS, INFORMATION & TECHNOLOGY (CCIT)
Readers are reminded that many of the basic documents of both the International organization and US/ICOMOS are available on the web sites of ICOMOS, www.icomos.org and www.international.icomos.org, mirror sites located in Ottawa and Paris, respectively.
In addition to containing links to other national and scientific committees with web pages, the international organization’s web site also includes a list of addresses for all Committees, materials for sale in the Documentation Centre in Paris, a short list of other web resources, and the full text of most of the ICOMOS charters. In the near future, it will also include links to ICOMOS Mexico’s announcement, schedule and registration information for the forthcoming General Assembly.
The US/ICOMOS site, www.icomos.org/usicomos/, contains information about the organization, its board members, and specialized committees, the catalog of short courses abroad in historic preservation, a publications list, and an extensive reference list of Papers in the US/ICOMOS library collected from international conferences between 1980 and 1996.
The organization also runs an e-mail mailing list called “usicomos”. It is open to all members of US/ICOMOS and others interested in the international aspects of heritage conservation and standard-setting. Recent topics on the list have included different approaches to statements of cultural significance, shared heritage and cultural corridors.
To subscribe, to the list, send an electronic mail message to firstname.lastname@example.org. In the body of the message include the single line, “subscribe usicomos” (without the quotation marks). You will receive in return a welcome message with further instructions on how to use the list..
Konservieren der Moderne? Volume XXIV of the ICOMOS Germany Journal with Proceedings from the 1996 Symposium on the conservation of the Architecture of the Modern Movement. In English and German, with articles by US/ICOMOS members Theodore Prudon and Stephen Kelley. Other Journal volumes still available from ICOMOS Germany are: Vol. II. Gutsanlagen des 16.bis 19 Jahrhunderts im Osteeraum – Geschichte und Gegenwart, 1990; Vol. III. Weltkulturdenkmäler in Deutschland, 1994; Vol. IV. Eisenbahn und Denkmalplfege I, 1992; Vol V, Die Wies, 1992; Vol VI, Model Brandenburg, 1992; Vol VII, Fertörákos, 1992; Vol. VIII, Reversabilität – das Fleigenblatt in der Denkmalpflege? 1991; Vol. IX, Eisenbahn und Denkmalpflege II, 1993; Vol X, Grundsätze der Denkmalplege / Principles of Monument Conservation, 1992; Vol. XI, Historische Kulturlandschaften, 1993; Vol. XII, Architekten und Demkmalpflege, 1993; Vol. XIII, Bildersturm in Osteuropa, 1994; Vol. XIV, Denkmäler in Rumaninen, 1995; Vol. XV, Sana’a, 1995; Vol. XVI, Das Schloss und seine Ausstattung als denkmalpflegerishce Aufgabe, 1995; Vol. XVII, Der Grosse Buddha von Dafosi / The Great Buddha of Dafosi, 1996; Vol. XIX, Stuck des Frühen und hohen Mittlealters, 1995; Vol. XX, Stalisnistische Architektur under Denkmalschutz? 1996; Vol. XXI, Das Denkmal als Altlast? 1995; Vol. XXV, Dom zu Brandenburg, 1998; Vol. XXVI, Legal Structurers of Private Ownership, 1998 (in preparation). Order from ICOMOS Germany: ICOMOS-Bayerisches Landesamt für Denkmalplege, Postfach 10 02 03, 80076 München, Germany. Fax: 011-49 89 211 4300. ‘
Spiritual Genocide: A Survey of Destroyed, Damaged and Desecrated Churches, Monasteries and Other Church Buildings During the War, 1991-1995 (1997) by Slobodan Mileusniƒ. From his post as Director of the Serbian Orthodox Church Museum in Belgrade, the author has been able to document with photographs, maps, eyewitness testimonies and descriptive texts a grim survey of the destruction of sacred Serbian Orthodox sites in the Dioceses of Banjaluka, Bihaƒ-Petrovac, Gronji Karlovac, Dabar-Bosnia, Dalmatia, Zageb-Ljubljana, Zahum-Hercegovina, Zvornk-Tuzla, Osjek-Polje and Baranja, and Slavonia. A total of 797 sites were destroyed or damaged, including 212 churches totally destroyed. For information or to order copies, write Museum of the Serbian Orthodox Church, Kraljia Petra I No. 5, Belgrade.’
Les couleurs dans la ville (Colors in the City), a study of the use of color in the façades of Geneva. A publication of the Monuments and Sites Service of the Department of Public Works Canton of Geneva, 5, rue David Dufour, 1025 Geneva, Switzerland. ‘
Tourism and Human Rights: a Report prepared by Tourism Concern. Researched and written by J Keefe and S Wheat. Based on the premise that tourism-related human rights abuses have been occurring for decades, this publication aims to show through examples from around the world that tourism defies many articles in the Declaration of Human Rights, in matters such as obstructing people’s rights to free movement, the right to work; education; rest and leisure; land, water and natural resources; privacy; and the rights of the child to protection. For more information, contact Tourism Concern, attn: Ms Barnett, Stapleton House, 277-281 Holloway Road, London N7 8HN, UK. ‘
Trade in Antiquities: Reducing Destruction and Theft by Patrick J O’Keefe. UNESCO Publishing, Paris. A study of the problems posed by collecting, written in very direct style and illustrated with example, examines policies frequently put forward to deal with limiting illicit trade. ‘
The World Culture Report 1998. UNESCO. The Report brings together experts from a wide span of disciplines to look at the interactions between culture and markets, democracy, urbanization, the environment and global ethics. Text may be consulted at www.unesco.org/culture. English version available from UNESCO Publishing, Paris. ‘
Architecture of Siam: a Cultural History Interpretation by Clarence Aasen. Oxford University Press. The book describes the special and identifying role architecture has played over the past fifteen centuries in the construction of the highly diverse and complex culture of Siam. Contact Prof Aasen In Wellington, Fax: 011-644-802-6204, or e-mail: email@example.com ‘
Heritage Habitat: A Source Book for the Urban Conservation Movement in Asia and the Pacific compiled by Khoo Salma Nasution for the Asia and West Pacific Network for Urban Conservation. A directory of heritage organizations and resource persons working actively in the urban conservation movement of the region. Send US$20 payable to Penang Heritage Trust (AWPNC), 120 Armenian Street, 10200 Penang, Malaysia. ‘
Bibliographie Stadforschung und Stadgeschichte zu Suedostasien 1973-1996 by Mai Lin Tjoa-Bonatz and M Toyka-Seid. Fraunhofer IRB. A bibliography on Southeast Asian urban history and urban research. Althouhg the introduction is written in German, most of the titles are in English. Order from Fraunhofer IRB in Stuttgart, Fax: 011-711-970 2508, or e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ‘
PEOPLE GOING PLACES
US/ICOMOS Chairman Robert Wilburn and International ICOMOS Vice President Ann Webster Smith attended the meetings of the ICOMOS Bureau and the Executive and Advisory Committees held in Stockholm, Sweden. ‘
US/ICOMOS member Marta de la Torre of Los Angeles is running for President of the International Council of Museums (ICOM). Elections will be held at the ICOM General Assembly which is being held in Australia in October. Ms de la Torre is Director of the Agora at the Getty Conservation Institute and a past Treasurer of ICOM. She was also in the staff of the ICOM Paris office prior to joining the Getty. We wish her good luck! ‘
Svetlana Popovic of Maryland presented a paper at the International Symposium held in Haifa, Israel, on Sabaite Heritage as a Factor in Monastic Life, Theology, Literature, Art and Archaeology of the Orthodox Church. The Symposium was sponsored by the University of Haifa and other institutions. ‘
Loretta Neumann of Washington, DC, was sworn in as Special Assistant ot the Administrator of Marititime Administration, Department of Transportation. Ms Neumann will be responsible for directing the American Heritage Rivers Program nationwide. ‘
Alvin Rosenabum, Director of the American Heritage Rivers Alliance has announced the formation of the organization as a non-profit organization that will educate corporate and non-profit organizations and foundations about the importance of integrating river revitalization with economic development and historic preservation. ‘
Herb Stovel of ICOMOS Canada and former Secretary General of ICOMOS, and Joseph King of US/ICOMOS have joined the faculty of ICCROM in Rome. ‘
E Blaine Cliver, Chief of HABS/HAER delivered a paper on the conservation of masonry at the 4th International Conference on Heritage Conservation sponsored by the Centro Internacional para la Conservacion del Patrimonio (CICOP) in Havana, Cuba. ‘
Roy E Graham has received a grant from the Samuel H Kress Foundation to lecture on his experience in Slovenia and Canada at the forthcoming course on Sustainable Urban Conservation in Brazil sponsored by ICCROM and other organizations. ‘
TRAINING & FELLOWSHIPS
Rome Prize Competition of the American Academy in Rome. The American Academy is the foremost American overseas center for independent studies and advanced research in the Fine Arts and the Humanities. Each year, through a national competition, the Academy offers Rome Prize Fellowships in up to 18 disciplines to artists and scholars who are US citizens. More than one thousand artists and scholars have received Rome Prizes since the Academy was founded in 1894. Fellowships provide each winner with a stipend, room and board, and work space at the Academy, which occupies eleven acres atop the Janiculum. Rome Prize winners pursue independent projects which vary in scope and content. Subject to funding availability, Prizes are offered in two Schools: Fine Arts (Architecture, Conservation, Graphic Design, Historic Preservation, Industrial Design, Interior Design, Landscape Architecture, Urban Design and Urban Planning) and Classical Studies (Archaeology, Classical Studies, History of Art, Modern Italian Studies, Post-Classical Humanistic Studies). Deadline for applications is 15 November 1998. For more information: American Academy in Rome, 7 E 60th St, New York NY 10022-1001. Telephone: 212-751-7200. Applications may be downloaded through the Academy’s website at www.aarome.org ‘
Certificate Program for Advanced Studies in Earthen Architecture. January 1999-June 2000. School of Architecture of the University of Grenoble, France. Information: Ms Marina Trappeniers, EA Grenoble, CRATerre, 60, av de Constantine, BP 2636, 38036 Grenoble Cedex 2, France. E-mail: email@example.com ‘
Second Pan-American Course on the Conservation and Management of Earthen Architecture and Archaeological Heritage in Chan Chan, Peru, 31 October-1 December 1999. Intensive, 6-week cycle of specialized professional training in situ in several sites around the city of Trujillo, structured around a core curriculum that promotes an interdisciplinary methodology for the conservation and management of earthen architectural and archaeological heritage. Specialized topics derived from the core curriculum are developed through lectures, demonstrations, practical lab and field exercises, case studies, site visits and discussions. Within this comprehensive course framework, particular attention is devoted to the state of knowledge in the field of earthen architectural heritage; including issues related to decorated surfaces, wall paintings, and polychrome reliefs on earthen supports; seismic risks and pathologies; and monitoring and maintenance.
Participants must be present throughout the entire 6-week period. The course is a collaboration of many institutions, including the Instituto Nacional de Cultura del Peru, CRATerre in the School of Architecture in Grenoble, the Getty Conservation Institute and ICCROM.
Completed applications and supporting documentation are due 1 December 1998. For information, contact Project “Terra” – PAT99, The Getty Conservation Institute, 1200 Getty Center Dr, Suite 700, Los Angeles CA 90049-1684. ‘
48th Annual Attingham Summer School for the Study of the Country House in Britain. 2-20 July, 1999. Course will be directed by Giles Waterfield and Annabel Westman and be based on three locations: West Dean, Sussex; the University of Sheffield; and the University of York. Course is aimed at museum curators and directors; architects, historians, preservationists, advanced students, teachers and collectors. Also, Attingam Study Week Program 31 May – 8 June, 1999 in Wessex. Application deadline: 15 January, 1999. For information, write Ms Bruel, 285 Central Park West, New York NY 10024. Phone: 212-362-0701. Fax: 212-580-9352
INTERNATIONAL PRESERVATION CALENDAR
Reconstruction of Historic Towns, Elblag, Poland, 24-27 September 1998. Organized by ICOMOS Poland. For information, write: Oddzial Wojewodski Panstwowej Sluzby Ochrony Zabytkow w Elbalgu. ul.Sw.Ducha 19, 82300 Elblag, Poland. ”
Conference on Baroque Opera Buildings, Bayreuth, Germany, 25-26 September, 1998. Contact ICOMOS Germany, Bayersiches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege, Hofgraben 4, 80539 Munich. Fax: 011- 4989 211 4300. ‘
World Bank Conference on Cultural Heritage and Sustainable Development, Washington, DC, 28-19 September, 1998. By invitation only.
Panamerican Federation of Engineers Associations’ V Panamerican Technical Meeting on Historic Heritage, San Juan Puerto Rico, 1-3 October 1998. Call for papers has been issued on the following topics: Walled Cities of the Americas; Economic and Tourism Development for Historic Districts; Farms, Plantations and Mills; Documentation and Research of Historic Heritage; Restoration Technology. Contact: UPADI, Fax: 787-250-8131 ”
Community Initiatives: A Vital Resource for Conservation, the ICOMOS Canada 1998 Annual Congress, Port Hope, Ontario, Canada, October 1998. For exact dates and information, contact Guy Masson, President of ICOMOS Canada: Tel & Fax: 1-613-749-09-71. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or Dinu Bumbaru at: email@example.com ‘
Forum UNESCO: University and Heritage, Melbourne, Australia, 4-9 October 1998. A meeting of the global network of academic training programs in preservation. Information: W. Logan at Deakin University. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ‘
Conservation and Sustainable Urban Development: a Theoretic Structure, Recife, Brazil, 5-9 October 1998. Co-sponsored by IPHAN Brasil, ICOMOS Training Committee, ICCROM, UNESCO World Heritage Center et al. Contact Silvio Zancheti in Recife, fax: 011-55-81-224-5662. E-mail: email@example.com ‘
21st Century Neighborhoods Conference: Assets and Advantages of the Older American City, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 7-8 October 1998. Sponsored by Philadelphia Office of Housing and Community Development, and the Foundation for Architecture. Contact: Foundation for Architecture, 1 Penn Ctr at Suburban Station, ste 1165, Philadelphia PA 19103, or Fax: 215-596-4688. Website: www.DCA.net/FFA-Phila ‘
International Meeting of Conservators and Restorers of the
Cultural Heritage, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 7-10 October 1998. The event is meant to foster greater cooperation and understanding among artisans and professionals working in heritage preservation, Sponsored by Artesanos del Restauro, Centro de Conservadores y Restaruadores de la Argentina and CICOP – Argentina. Contact Alicia Fernandez: Fax: 011-54-498-22143 ‘
US/ICOMOS Board of Trustees Meeting, Washington, DC, 9 October 1998 ‘
Museums and Cultural Diversity, the 1998 ICOM General Assembly and Symposium. Melbourne, Australia, 10-16 October 1998. Contact John H Button, Fax: 011-613-9650 3535. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ”
First Latin American and Caribbean Trade fair and Congress on the Restoration and Conservation of Monuments, Curaçao, Netherland Antilles, 14-16 October 1998. Contact InterExpo Nederland. Fax: 011-31-0-181-410-838 or 1-800-2-CUR-INT.
Heritage Preservation: 25th Anniversary Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, 19-20 October 1998. Contact Kyra Skvir at 202-634-1422. ‘
Railroad Station Reviatilization Seminar, Washington, DC, 20-21 October 1998. Sponsored by the Great American Station Foundation with the Norfolk Southern Corporation. Contact: 202-906-3518, Fax: 202-906-2765. Web Site: www.stationfoundation.org ‘
Conservation of 20th Century Architecture, the 19th International ICOMOS MEXICO Symposium, Mexico City, 20-24 October 1998. Contact ICOMOS Mexico, Fax: 011-525-277 3166. E-mail: email@example.com ”
Annual Conference of the Society for Commercial Archaeology, Chattanooga, Tenn, 21-24 October, 1998. Contact: 404-651-6546. ‘
International Conference on Green Areas, Public Spaces and the Urban Environment, Havana, Cuba, 21-23 October 1998. Sponsored by Grupo para el Desarrollo Integral de la Habana. For information, contact Mario González, Fax: 011-537-247168. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ”
US/ICOMOS at the National Trust Annual Meeting:
Educational Session: Why Do We Do What We Do? The Art Of Preservation.” Register early before the usual sellout. US/ICOMOS Breakfast, 7 to 8:15 am, October 23.
Joint ICOMOS Bulgaria and ICOMOS Russia Colloquium on Cultural Tourism and Cultural Routes, Sofia, 22-24 October, 1998. Information, ICOMOS Bulgaria, Fax: 011-359-2-980-6050. E-mail: email@example.com ‘
International Conference on Art, Antiquity and the Law: Preserving our Global Cultural Heritage, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA, 30 October-1 November 1998. Organized by US/ICOMOS member, Prof Archer St Clair Harvey, sponsored by Global Programs and the Department of Art History of Rutgers University. Registration free but required by 20 September. For information, contact Henriette Cohen, Phone 732-932-7066. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. See web site: www.rci.rutgers.edu/~allconf ”
denkmal ’98, European Trade Fair for the Preservation of Historic Buildings and for Urban Renewal, Leipzig, Germany, 28-31 October 1998. Under the patronage of UNESCO. Over 650 exhibitors expected. Trade fair is aimed at a multi-disciplinary public, covers all aspects of preservation and restoration and provides a forum to enable dialogue with experts form all over the world. Fair conducted jointly with ICOMOS Germany Colloquium described below. Other conferences and seminars: World Heritage Symposium, sponsored by the German UNESCO Commission; Urban Planning and Preservation of Historic Monuments, sponsored by German Ministry for Construction; Cemeteries on the Edge of Oblivion; Restoration and the Crafts Trade; Identical Ends/Innovative Means: Innovations in the Preservation of Historic Buildings. Contact: Leipziger Messe GmbH, Postfach 100720, D-04007 Leipzig. Fax: 011-49 341 678 6272. E-mail: email@example.com
ICOMOS Germany Colloquium on the Concept of Repair, Leipzig, Germany, 30-31 October, 1998. Contact ICOMOS Germany, Bayersiches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege, Hofgraben 4, 80539 Munich. Fax: 011- 4989 211 4300.
APT’s 3rd Symposium on Museums in Historic Buildings, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, 5-7 November 1998. Specific topic for this year is “Light and Lighting in Historic Structures that House Collections.” Symposium will include exhibits by manufacturers of illumination equipment for historic structures. For information, contact Thomas Taylor, Chair of the Steering Committee.
Fax: 757-220-7787. E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Culture and Tourism ’98, Budapest, Hungary, 9-13 November 1998. Contact Istvan Kiraly, Fax: 011 361 218-6560. ”
International Seminar-Workshop on Cities by the Water: Revitalization of Ports, Coastlines and Riverfronts. Havana, Cuba, 18-20 November 1998. Contact Mario Coyula at Grupo Integral para el Desarrollo de la Capital. Fax 011-537-24-2661. E-mail: email@example.com
III International Workshop on Iberian Settlements in the Americas. Sancti Spiritus and Trinidad, Cuba, 21-28 November 1998. Contact Marazul, Tower Plaza, 4100 Park Ave, Weehawken NJ 07087. Fax: 201-319-9009. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ”
Tecnoart’98, International Exposition on Conservation, Restoration and Preservation of the Cultural Heritage, Barcelona, Spain, 27-29 November 1998. Information: B 1 G Promociones, SL. Enric Granados 19, 083330 Premia del Mar, Spain. ‘
World Heritage Committee Meeting, Kyoto, Japan, 30 November-5 December 1998.
Façadism and Urban Identity, an international inter-European conference. Paris, France, 2-4 December 1998. Sponsored by ICOMOS and the French Ministry of Culture and Communications. Contact ICOMOS, fax: 011-331-4566 0622. E-mail: email@example.com
II International Colloquium on the Cultural Heritage of 19th-Century Iberian-American Cities. Cienfuegos, Cuba, 7-11 December 1998. Four sub-themes: Urban and architectural development from the 19th century to now; exterior and interior treatments of 19th century spaces; the industrial legacy in 19th century architecture and urbanism; and Cultural heritage and tourism, including rehab of 19th-century hotels. Contact Mr Iran Millan. Telephone: 011-53-432-5424. Fax: 011-53-432-8783
Restoration 98, 5th International Trade Fair on Preservation and Restoration of the Cultural Heritage, Amsterdam, Holland, 10-12 December, 1998. Information: Amsterdam RAI, Postbus 77777, 1070 MS Amsterdam.
US/ICOMOS Board of Trustees Meeting, Washington, DC, 11 December, 1998
Annual Conference of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Salt Lake City, Utah, 5-10 January 1999. For information, call 801-394-0013
The Roofing Conference and Exposition for Historic Buildings. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 17-19 March 1999. Sponsored by the National Park Service, GSA, APT, NCSHPO et al. An international forum on technical and preservation issues concerning the repair, restoration and replacement of roofs, roofing and their related features. The exposition will include a variety of roofing repair and replacement systems available for older and historic buildings. For information write: Roofing Conference Director, PO Box 77160, Washington, DC, 20013-7160. Phone: 202-343-6008
Vernacular Architectural Heritage, the 8th International Conference on Theoretical and Practical Issues of Monument Preservation. Tusnad, Romania, 21-27 March, 1999. Organized by the Transylvania Trust Foundation and the Transylvania Monument Restorers Society; sponsored by ICOMOS Romania, ICOMOS Hungary and ICOMOS Germany. English simultaneous translation. For more information, contact Transylvanian Trust in Cluj: Fax: 011-(46-4) 192 474, or e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
On the Frontiers of Conservation: Discovery, Reappraisal, and Innovation. The George Wright Society’s 10th Annual Conference on Research and Resource Management in Parks or on Public Land. Asheville, North Carolina, USA, 22-26 March 1999. Call for papers due 15 October 1998. Contact GWS, PO Box 65, Hancock , MI 49930-0065, phone: 906-487-9722. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Or visit the website for an on-line abstract submission form: www.portup.com/~gws/gws99.html
64th Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Chicago, 24-28 March 1999. Call for papers open through 2 September 1998. Contact SAA, Fax: 202 789-0284. E-mail: email@example.com
I International Congress on Culture and Development: Cultural Development from an Ethical Perspective, Havana, Cuba, 7-11 June, 1999. Cosponsored by UNESCO, UNICEF, the Andres Bello Convention and numerous Cuban institutions. Contact Ms Reina Mestre, Fax: 011-537-55 321. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Or e-mail Eva Bravo : email@example.com
ICOM Conservation Committee Triennial Meeting, Lyon, France, 29 August-3 September 1999. Call for papers open through 30 November 1998. Contact ICOM, fax: 011-331-4306 7862. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
XVIII Symposium of the ICOMOS Committee on Architectural and Archaeological Photogrammetry, Recife/Olinda, Brazil, 3-6 October 1999. In conjunction with the XIX Brazilian Congress on Cartography. Symposium sessions will be supplemented by technical presentations, software demos and poster sessions. Tours to Olinda (World heritage Sites), Porto de Galinhas and Itamaracá. For information, contact Mr Nei Erling in Rio, Fax: 011-55-21-262-2823. E-mail: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
XII ICOMOS GENERAL ASSEMBLY AND INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM, Mexico City, Guanajuato, Morelia and Guadalajara, 17-23 October, 1999. Contact ICOMOS Mexicano, Fax: 011-525-277-3166. E-mail: email@example.com
US/ICOMOS BOARD OF TRUSTEES
Ann Webster Smith, Chairman
Robert C. Wilburn, Vice-Chairman
Blaine Cliver, Secretary
Darwina Neal, Treasurer
At large: William A.V. Cecil, Jr., NC William S. Colburn, Michigan
Roy E. Graham, Washington, DC Pamela W. Hawkes, Massachusetts
John T. Joyce, Washington, DC
Stephen J. Kelley, Illinois
James P. Kiernan, Washington, DC
R. Randolph Langenbach, Washington, DC Spencer Leineweber, Hawaii
Frank G. Matero, Pennsylvania
Richard Pieper, New York
Constance W. Ramirez, Virginia Thomas Schmidt, Pennsylvania Peter H. Stott, Massachusetts
Michael R. Taylor, New Mexico
Troy D. Thompson, Indiana
Ex Officio: American Association of Museums American Institute of Architects
American Society of Landscape Architects Archaeological Institute of America
National Park Service
National Trust for Historic Preservation Smithsonian Institution
Society for American Archaeology United States Information Agency Society of Architectural Historians
Gustavo F. Araoz, AIA, Executive Director
Ellen M. Delage, Program Director
Patricia Bovers Ball, Newsletter Editor
Volunteers: Svetlana Popovic
Roland Silva, Sri Lanka, President
Jean-Louis Luxen, Belgium, Secretary General
Jan Jessurun, Netherlands, Treasurer General
Vice Presidents: Mamadou Berthe, Senegal
Joseph Phares, Lebanon
Esteban Prieto, Dominican Republic
Christiane Schmuckle-Mollard, France
Ann Webster Smith, USA
ICOMOS INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEES: Archaeological Heritage Management* Photogtammetry Cultural Tourism* Rock Art Economics of Conservation Stained Glass Earthen Structures* Stone Historic Gardens and Sites* Structures Historic Towns* Training* Inventories* Underwater Cultural Heritage Legislation* Vernacular Architecture* Wood*
* Corresponding US/ICOMOS National Specialized Committees
ICOMOS NATIONAL COMMITTEES
Czech Republic Denmark
Dominican Rep. Ecuador
US/ICOMOS MISSION STATEMENT
US/ICOMOS fosters heritage conservation and historic preservation at the national and international levels through education and training, international exchange of people and information, technical assistance, documentation, advocacy and other activities consistent with the goals of ICOMOS and through collaboration with other organizations.
US/ICOMOS membership includes professionals, practitioners, supporters and organizations committed to the protection, preservation and conservation of the world’s cultural heritage. US/ICOMOS is the U.S. National Committee of the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), the international nongovernmental organization dedicated to the preservation and conservation of the world’s heritage.
The US/ICOMOS Newsletter is published by US/ICOMOS six times a year. Members are encouraged to submit articles, illustrations and editorial items for inclusion in the Newsletter. Contributors are solely responsible for the facts and opinions stated herein, and publication in this Newsletter does not constitute an official endorsement by US/ICOMOS.
Please send submissions and any inquiries to the Editor, US/ICOMOS Newsletter, 401 F Street, NW, Room 331, Washington, DC 20001-2728.
This newsletter has been financed in part with Federal funds from the National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. However, the contents and opinions do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of the Interior.