In this IssueNew ChartersICOMOS Strategic PlanBrick Masonry ConservationIllegal Traffic of Cultural ObjectsInternational Poster CompetitionAfrican-American Heritage SitesSan Juan World Heritage SiteLa Plata Cathedral, Argentina Georgian Republic ReportBosnia-HerzegovinaSho-Hondo temple, JapanTyre, LebanonSintra, PortugalAfghanistanAmerican Express Watch GrantsCoalition of Historic Sites of Conscience Membership GETTING READY FOR MEXICO 99 Preparations for the 1999 ICOMOS General Assembly & Inter-national Symposium are well under way, and the host Mexican Committee has designed an ambitious multi-city venue that will facilitate the exchange of ideas by area of specialization or interest. The event will begin with the convening of the General Assembly in Mexico City on October 17th. The opening ceremonies will take place in the Palacio de Bellas Artes, an extraordinary architectural combination of Art Nouveau and Art Deco that forms part of the World Heritage District of Mexico City.After the opening ceremonies, participants will either remain in Mexico City or travel to Morelia, Guanajuato (both World Heritage Cities) or Guadalajara for interest-area symposia and workshops built around the topics of the ICOMOS International Scientific Committees. Upon the conclusion of the four symposia, all will go to Guadalajara, where the General Assembly proceedings will reconvene and general elections will take place. The closing ceremonies will take place at the Instituto Cultural Cabañas, under the fiery murals of Orozco (also a World Heritage Site). The Mexican Committee promises this will be a memorable event and, based on the spectacular success of their past 19 International Annual Symposia, there is no reason to expect any less.The ICOMOS General Assembly is the best opportunity for ICOMOS members to share in the ICOMOS global arena. As part of the activities involving the full membership of ICOMOS, the ICOMOS Strategic Plan [See page 3 for full text] has been circulated for the consideration of all National Committees and then for adoption at the General at the General Assembly. Each National Committee is asked to propose clearly defined tasks – or specific short-term initiatives – that will support particular strategies that are set forth in the Plan. As you review the work of US/ICOMOS, you may note that there is already significant involvement in many of the proposed goals. Nevertheless, US/ICOMOS invites all its members to forward their comments on the document to US/ICOMOS by July 25, so that they may be sent to Paris by the August 1 deadline. They will be presented officially by Chairman Robert Wilburn at the meeting of the Advisory Committee to be held in Stockholm in September. At that time, the Committee will adopt the final draft that will be voted on at the General Assembly in Mexico “NEW CHARTERS ON CULTURAL TOURISM, VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE AND WOODAlong with the Strategic Plan, a revised Charter on Cultural Tourism and new Charters on the Principles of Practice for the Preservation of Historic Timber Structures, and on the Conservation of Vernacular Architecture will be voted into acceptance by the general membership. These charters have been under development and reviewed by the International Scientific Committees on Cultural Tourism, Wood, and Vernacular Architecture since the last General Assembly in Sofia. A fourth document, the Declaration of the Rights to Cultural Heritage, has also been under development. At the September meeting in Stockholm, the Advisory Committee will do a final review of all four texts, recommending their final draft for adoption at the General Assembly. Once that recommendation has occurred, the texts of the drafts will be printed in this Newsletter to inform the US/ICOMOS General Assembly vote.The ICOMOS Charters aim to summarize the highest and most universal standards that guide the work of preservationists throughout the world. ICOMOS Charters are usually initiated by the International Scientific Committees, and all use the Venice Charter as their philosophical foundation. Charters are drafted over a period of several years, and the lengthy process of revision includes world-wide circulation among all members of the Scientific Committee as well as representatives from affinity organizations. In order to be submitted for adoption by the full membership at a General Assembly, each charter must be accepted and recommended for approval by the ICOMOS Advisory Committee, the ICOMOS governing body made up by the Presidents of all the National Committees. Since Stockholm will be the last meeting of the Advisory before the 1999 General Assembly, it is important that final review by specialists and National Committees be complete by that time.More than any other document issued by ICOMOS, Charters constitute the most profound consideration of the specific and general challenges in preserving cultural resources. Beginning with the seminal Venice Charter, a sequence of topical or ancillary charters have been drafted, reviewed and adopted by the general membership of ICOMOS. They are perhaps the most valuable and permanent contribution of the International Scientific Committees and working groups of ICOMOS.DRAFT STRATEGIC PLAN 1999-2002 FOR ICOMOS,ITS NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEES INTRODUCTION: In developing a Strategic Plan, ICOMOS has set forth its mission and the aspirations of the organization.The mission responds to the question: What is ICOMOS today? and To what does ICOMOS aspire in the future?The Goals answer the questions: What is ICOMOS committed to achieving? The goals set overall objectives that take the long-term view.The Strategies answer the questions: How is ICOMOS going to make its goals a reality? And the strategies guide ICOMOS in its day-to-day operations and decision-making.Tasks respond to the question: What short-term initiatives does ICOMOS need to establish in order to support a particular strategy?MISSION STATEMENT: ICOMOS – the International Council on Monuments and Sites – is the international non-governmental organization of professionals, practitioners, institutions and other bodies committed to and supporting the conservation/ preservation of the cultural heritage of all peoples. ICOMOS is collegial and committed in spirit, and universal in its concerns. Through its membership and the exchange of information and expertise, ICOMOS forms an international network that defines, improves and promotes conservation/ preservation principles, standards, research, responsible practice & innovation.GOALS:1. TO PROVIDE LEADERSHIP IN THE CONSERVATION/ PRESERVATION OF THE WORLD’S CULTURAL HERITAGE.Strategies:a. To define and refine conservation/preservation philosophy, standards and practice by development of charters, recommendations, guidelines and other statements of principle, such as the Declaration of Rights to Cultural Heritage or Codes of Ethic.b. To promote exchange of expertise and information in order to stimulate and extend the state-of-the-art in conservation/ preservation practice worldwide.c. To establish collaboration, partnerships and alliances with related professional bodies and institutions.d. To promote, through its membership, the participation and sense of belonging to a dynamic international community of professionals and experts in the field of conservation/ preservation.e. To provide a framework for organizing on an interdisciplinary basis the professions involved in the conservation/preservation of cultural heritage.2. TO PROVIDE A FORUM FOR THE EXAMINATION OF ISSUES RELATING TO CONSERVATION/PRESERVATION OF THE CULTURAL HERITAGE THROUGHOUT THE WORLD.Strategies:a. To provide a relevant forum for examining conservation/ preservation issues among international and national bodies, practitioners and others through various means such as International Scientific Committees, symposia, triennial general assemblies, publications, activities of National Committees, local and regional activities and the Internet.b. To offer its members the mechanisms for examining and analyzing conservation/preservation practice and issues, as well as an opportunity for involvement in their examination through the work of National and International Scientific Committees or partnerships such as the Blue Shield and other initiatives.c. To provide mechanisms for the exchange of information on the state-of-the-art in conservation/preservation, and on the cultural heritage at risk.3. TO PROVIDE EXPERT ADVICE IN THE FIELD OF CONSERVATION/ PRESERVATION OF THE CULTURAL HERITAGE THROUGHOUT THE WORLDStrategies:a. To mobilize expertise through its membership and its partnership by the work of its National and International Scientific Committees, through programs such as Blue Shield and by commissioning expert missions.b. To assist governments and institutions in the development and review of conservation/preservation programs, and the examination of conservation/preservation issues through missions, symposia, workshops, program and project development, partnerships.c. To examine issues relating to the World Heritage Convention, including advising the World Heritage Committee on nominations, expert missions and reporting, and on related ideas and intellectual development.d. To work with and through regional and intergovernmental organizations such as the World Bank, IDB, OAS, ALECSO, Council of Europe, and SPAFA.e. To inform and influence decision-makers at all levels.4. TO SERVE AS A FORCE FOR EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION IN THE FIELD OF CONSERVATION/PRESERVATION OF THE CULTURAL HERITAGE THROUGHOUT THE WORLD.Strategies:a. To promote education and training as a means for improving the quality of practice, work and standards by offering continuing education for practitioners, by disseminating information concerning professional standards, by coordinating training programs, disseminating Charters and Guidelines, and by offering and advising on academic programs.b. To develop and implement communication, through publications and information activities such as a serial ICOMOS Newsletter and ICOMOS Scientific Journal, by occasional publications like the “20 Books on national conservation/preservation practices, by producing working papers and reports on conservation/preservation practice, by making use of new information technologies, i.e., the Internet, and by managing and disseminating information through the Documentation/Information Center.5. TO BE AN ADVOCATE FOR THE CONSERVATION/PRESERVATION OF THE CULTURAL HERITAGE THROUGHOUT THE WORLD.Strategies:a. To defend the cause of conservation/preservation and act as an independent and dedicated supporter for its integration in public policy concerning economic and social development.b. To promote public awareness, appreciation and involvement in heritage conservation/preservation.c. To play an intermediary role between those with different perspectives including owners and managers of the cultural heritage, conservation professionals, decision makers, policy makers, the general public and others.d. To promote the adoption of international conventions and other standards designed to protect and preserve the cultural heritage, such as the World Heritage Convention, the Hague Convention and the Convention on Illicit Traffic.e. To disseminate information concerning the environmental, social, educational and economic benefits of conservation/preservation.6. TO ENSURE THE SUSTAINABILITY OF ICOMOSStrategies:a. To ensure effective management, administration, and a strong international Secretariat.b. To ensure financial stability through the yearly payment of national membership dues, marketing programs, project management and fundraising.c. To establish ICOMOS membership as an essential professional conservation/preservation practice on both public and private sectors, in academia and training programs, and among related disciplines.d. To develop ICOMOS membership through the articulation and implementation of a membership development strategy, and to adopt and achieve specific target figures for all categories of membership including supporters, sponsors and corporate membership, governmental and institutional membership.e. To develop, maintain and service a broad-based, active ICOMOS membership worldwide and among the disciplines of conservation/preservation through, for example, a membership directory, a database for missions, and through the development of attractive membership services, privileges and benefits.f. To encourage membership among a variety of disciplines, supporters, sustainers, governmental and non-governmental institutions, and young professionals through programs for membership development and student membership and exchanges.This Strategic Plan will be reviewed every triennium. “TRAINING IN BRICK MASONRY CONSERVATIONUnder a grant from the National Park Service, the US/ICOMOS Specialized Committee on Brick Masonry and Ceramics convened a panel of experts in Washington, DC, on June 16th and 17th as the first step in establishing an international training program on the conservation of brick masonry. While the first full-fledged international course may still be a few years away, the panel agreed on the need to begin to stage a variety of other training opportunities in the next two years. US/ICOMOS envisions the courses to be international in both student and faculty composition.For some years, the conservation community has been articulating a concern that training for the conservation of brick masonry has not been sufficiently addressed at the global level. Most international programs have focused on either stone or earthen architecture. Brick masonry, caught somewhere in-between, has only been addresses tangentially, even though it was the object of intensive, but unfortunately finite, study of NATO-CCMS (Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society) that has now concluded. At the national level in the United States, there are a number of excellent programs, but they focus only on certain aspects of the problem and are directed at specific audiences, such as professionals or tradespersons.The June meeting identified the planning sequence that will be necessary to stage the course periodically, as well identification of course content and potential instructors from around the world. The panel also spent time discussing the full range of the potential audience, attempting to include all groups whose actions affect the conservation of brick masonry structures. Four such groups that the panel felt need to be reached are building inspectors, code compliance enforcers, real estate professionals and the insurance industry.Brick masonry conservation experts and representatives from industry, government and acadaemia were invited to participate in the panel. Attending the meeting were Dr Elena Charola, Chair of the US/ICOMOS Brick Masonry and Ceramics Committee, and professor at the University of Pennsylvania’s Graduate Program on Historic Preservation; Dr Norbert Baer of New York University; Blaine Cliver, of the National Park Service in Washington, DC; Frances Gale, of the National Center for Preservation Technology and Training in Natchitoches, Louisiana; Judy Jacob of the National Park Service in New York; Dr Richard Livingstone, of the Federal Highway Administration in Washington, DC; Michael Schuller, PE, of Atkins-Noland & Associates, Consulting Engineers, in Boulder, Colorado; Dr Thomas Taylor, of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation and AIC; and Prof Norman Weiss of Columbia University. Some of the invited participants who could not attend sent in their written comments.The problem of finding adequate funding for the various components of the training effort was also an important topic of the discussion, leading to the preliminary identification of potentialpartner institutions and co-sponsors ” ILLEGAL TRAFFIC OF CULTURAL RESOURCESUS/ICOMOS joined the Archaeological Institute of American in filing an amicus brief in the Steinhardt case with the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. The case involves the seizure by U.S. Customs officials of an ancient gold phiale mesomphalos found in the possession of a New York City art collector who had recently acquired it from a Swiss dealer. The brief was filed in support of an earlier conclusion by the U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York, that the phiale is subject to forfeiture pursuant to the National Stolen Property Act. Evidence presented in court indicated that the phiale had gained entry into the United States through misrepresentations in the required Customs forms. According to other evidence presented, the phiale was discovered during unauthorized diggings in the archaeological zone of Caltavuturo in central northern Sicily and then traveled to Switzerland, where it was offered for sale. The Archaeological Institute of the University of Palermo has reported that the site of Caltavuturo has been the subject of several devastating clandestine excavations. Under Italian patrimonial law, the phiale could not leave Italy.Stephen Dennis, Chair of the US/ICOMOS Committee on Preservation law has commented that “the central issue in the case is whether the National Stolen Property Act permits U.S. Customs officials to seize as ‘stolen’ property items which a foreign government seeks to claim as national property under foreign existing patrimony law that allegedly defines ownership rights in newly discovered archaeological items.” Such types of legislation exist in many countries in the world, defining all subsoil archaeological evidence as being the property of the state.Mr Dennis further indicates that although the United States is a signatory to the UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Export , Import and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property, this Convention is not self-executing within the United States. Instead, Congress has chosen to implement only two portions of the UNESCO Convention through the 1983 Cultural Property Implementation Act. The United States Information Agency is largely responsible for implementing our participation in the Convention, and carries out the President’s executive responsibilities with assistance from the Cultural Property Advisory Committee. The Act relies on the establishment of bilateral agreements for making effective the permanent protection in the United States of specific cultural property in a country. There are several such bilateral agreements in place, including ones with Peru and El Salvador.But the Steinhardt case does not turn on interpretation of the 1983 Act which is inapplicable to the facts of this case. Instead, the National Stolen Property Act has been used, forcing the United States to argue in support of Italian preservation law.While US/ICOMOS feels that the proper institutions to deal with the illicit traffic of cultural artifacts are those entities concerned with the protection of moveable heritage, the Board of Trustees decided to participate in this brief because of the devastating effect that illicit excavations intended to supply the international art market have on the integrity of archaeological sites and their evidence. According to Interpol, the illicit trade of cultural property, weapons and drugs are the most serious illegal trading activities in the world.Other organizations joining the brief in support of appellees United States of America and the Republic of Italy are the Society for American Archaeology, the American Philological Association and the Society for Historical Archaeology.US/ICOMOS is deeply grateful to the Washington, DC, law firm of Venable, Baetjer, Howard & Civiletti for their thoughtful pro-bono assistance in drafting the US/ICOMOS portion of the brief. Special thanks to attorneys Joe Shull and N. Frank Wiggins. “CONSERVING THE WALLS IN EL VIEJO SAN JUANUS/ICOMOS has been invited by the National Park Service and the State Preservation Office of Puerto Rico to convene an international group of technical experts to study the deterioration of the masonry walls that form part of the Spanish Colonial fortification system of San Juan, a World Heritage Site. As in other fortifications throughout the Caribbean, the massive masonry fabric of San Juan is prey to various agents of deterioration that include a saline environment; erosive winds; submarine undermining and wave abrasion; subsoil and rain water penetration; intense human use; botanical invasion and attack by micro-organisms.The tasks that have been identified preliminarily for the panel of experts are the study of the historic construction, alterations and maintenance records, going back to the date of original construction; the in situ study of current causes, types and rates of deterioration; identification of any additional materials testing; and recommendations for future treatments and maintenance procedures. Parts of the San Juan World Heritage Site fall under the stewardship of the Government of Puerto Rico, while others are under the National Park Service.The fortifications of San Juan were under the control of the Spanish armed forces until 1898, when the Spain lost Puerto Rico and all its overseas territories at the end of the Spanish-American War. Control of the forts proper then passed to the U.S. Army, whose Corps of Engineers undertook considerable restoration and reconstruction. During World War II, the structures were further fortified for then-modern warfare. After the War, the Army transferred its property to the Department of the Interior and thus, it became a National Park. Another part of the site, the colonial residence of the governors in La Fortaleza, is the property of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and is still used as the residence of its Governor “INTERNATIONAL POSTER COMPETITIONUS/ICOMOS has joined the Savannah College of Arts and Design and UNESCO in sponsoring an international student competition to design the logo for the Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit export , Import and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property. The competition was launched earlier on the Spring with a photographic exhibition at the United Nations in New York. The exhibition illustrates both the beneficial effects of effective management techniques and the nefarious effects of looting and illicit traffic on the integrity of heritage sites throughout the world. Announcements for the competition will be sent to educational institutions throughout the world “IDENTIFYING AFRICAN-AMERICAN HERITAGEUS/ICOMOS is sponsoring an internship to plan a symposium that will examine the process of identification and evaluation of African American cultural sites in the United States and other countries in the Americas. The internship is funded through a grant from the National Park Service. The Symposium, scheduled for late 1999 or early 2000, is also envisioned to contribute to new approaches to the identification and evaluation of cultural sites in sub-Saharan Africa. Under the aegis of UNESCO’s World Heritage Center and ICOMOS, similar events have taken place in Africa in the recent past. UNESCO has also sponsored the establishment of the Slave Route as a transoceanic, intercontinental context in which the effects of the African diaspora my be identified and evaluated. In the United States and Canada, the tail end of the Route is the Underground Railroad.The identification of culturally significant Sub-Saharan African Sites and also of African-American Sites in the New World has been a consistent challenge. As a result, there is the appearance of under-representation in most inventories and registers, such as the World Heritage List and, in the United States, the National Register of Historic Places and state and local inventories. Part of the problem seems to stem from the application of Western European heritage concepts to other cultures where the built record of the historic passage of humanity through the landscape is viewed with a different optic. A cursory examination of those Sub-Saharan African cultural sites included in the World Heritage List reveals that, indeed, they are largely those that fit neatly within the European concepts of monumentality, archaeological value or vernacular architectural expression. But even this latter category has been difficult to include in a broadly representative way. Perhaps this is because many sites, even though a clear product of ancient construction traditions, are built of perishable materials that require their periodic replacement, an intervention that contradicts the European criterion of antiquity. In addition, historians, such as Mbaye Gueye of Senegal, are now linking a real absence of built heritage in the region with depopulation and the collapse of social, economic and political structures brought about by the slave trade.On this side of the Atlantic, the existence of old African American historic sites meeting Eurocentric criteria is practically impossible, since African Americans were subjected for centuries to conditions that made it impossible for them openly to implement Afrocentric construction and settlement techniques.Because African American cultures are particularly rich in intangible cultural expressions, many of the sites identified and registered derive their significance largely from their association with those intangible traditions, and not so much because of any particular intrinsic value in the site’s man-made physical setting. Other types of African American sites included in local, state and federal inventories are those associated with the plight of emancipation and the ongoing struggle of African American people for equality within the larger United States society. Their significance is not unlike that of battle sites: they gain importance as the stage for monumental events that occurred on a given date.But there are also allegations, both in the United States and elsewhere, that African and African American heritage sites do not receive proper recognition because of a deeply ingrained racist bias in Eurocentric societies as well as a sense of shame and guilt. As an example, Sophie Boukari, writing in UNESCO Sources, cites the insufficient attention that is given to African slavery in the teaching of history in Europe and in African American countries such as Brazil and the US. She claims that stereorotypes and myths mingle freely with fact to create inaccurate or incomplete histories. Even in African countries where the effects of slavery are still vivid, only in Benin does slavery receive the necessary depth in school curricula.Through the Symposium, US/ICOMOS aims to provide a forum to discuss this complex problem. If successful, from it might begin to emerge a new appreciation for the perception by African and African American cultures for the evidence of their ancestors’ passage through the environment, leading in turn to the development of new criteria to evaluate their significance. To prepare to do so, US/ICOMOS intern and Stanford graduate, Falona Heidelberg, is collecting a pertinent bibliography on the topic. Another aim of her work is the identification of recognized experts in this field from which a steering committee may be formed to develop the appropriate structure and content for the symposium “SUB SAHARAN AFRICAN SITES IN THE WORLD HERITAGE LISTBenin: Royal Palaces of AbomeyGhana: Coastal Forts and Castles; Ashante traditional buildingsMali: Cities of Djenné and Timbuktu; the Cliffs of BandiagaraMauritania: Ancient Ksour of Ouadane, Chinguetti, Tichitt and OualataSenegal: Island of GoréeTanzania: Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and of Songo MnaraZimbabwe: Great Zimbabwe; Khami Ruins.US/ICOMOS HUMAN RESOURCES DATABASEUS/ICOMOS has begun to gather information about professional experience and qualifications of its members in order to establish a computerized database to be made available internationally to other ICOMOS National Committees and heritage-related institutions. To that end, standardized forms were sent out with the membership renewal notices last month. The information to be provided in the forms consist of key-words for the purpose of sorting, and also of free text to allow individuals to give more personalized details of their capabilities and experience.The objective of the database will be to facilitate the identification of available expertise at multiple levels, fostering the international exchange of ideas. A direct benefit of this tool will be for academic institutions that may need professionals with the ability to lecture on specific topics in a given language. Other applications will be for researchers to identify colleagues working on affinity areas, and for the preliminary identification of potential consultants by development agencies and organizations.A date for the availability of the database is still not set, and volunteers are being sought to assist with the data entry. If interested, call US/ICOMOS. “HI-TECH CONSERVATION IN ARGENTINA CATHEDRALWhile a guest lecturer at the Centro Internacional de Conservación del Patrimonio in Buenos Aires and the Universidad Católica de Salta, US/ICOMOS Executive Director Gustavo Araoz had the opportunity to visit La Plata. This is his report:Among the most interesting of Argentine cities is La Plata, a late 19th century planned new town built to replace Buenos Aires as the capital city of the Buenos Aires province. Its highly rational grid plan articulated with plazas and radiating avenues is itself worthy of lengthy study and analysis, but these days, the big attraction in La Plata is the restoration of its Cathedral, reputedly the largest brick church in the world.The Cathedral of La Plata was conceived as part of an eclectic group of civic monuments destined to anchor and symbolize the new town. Sitting on a raised podium overlooking the huge central plaza, construction on the Cathedral began in 1884 to the design of engineer Pedro Benoit.This was a time when, as one of the world economic powers, Argentina luxuriated in extraordinary experiments in architectural and urban design.Benoit=s ambitious design for the Cathedral called for a cruciform plan with ambulatory, five naves over 100 m long, flying buttresses, elaborate stained glass windows and multiple towers, pinnacles and finials. On its outside, the hefty brick bearing structure was planned to receive a protective stucco finish simulating Gothic stone masonry and carvings, a common approach in a land poor in quarries, but rich in the stucco crafts brought by immigrants from Catalonya and Italy. Because of this, the masonry is highly irregular, with many brick and mortar types.Funded by the Provincial Government of Buenos Aires (the building has always belonged to the State, not the Church), construction proceeded at a slow pace for more than fifty years, and in the 1940s, with the church already enclosed and roofed, work came to a stop due to the economic and political crises that characterized the next decades. In liturgical use since then, the blatantly unfinished red-brick giant slowly grew in the people= eye as the Spartan iconic image of the city, while the poor and often shoddy brick masonry slowly deteriorated.In 1996, through a happy convergence of public and private will, funding legislation with mechanisms for additional fundraising was passed by the Provincial Government to bring the Cathedral project to completion. Crucial in this whole process was the work of the Fundacion Catedral, a private not-for-profit group. To initiate the work, a city-wide festival was staged with grand fireworks and a massively attended rock concert on the front steps of the Cathedral featuring Vox Dei, a popular Argentine religious rock group .The actual scope of the potentially controversial completion only became established as discussion about the various options progressed. Among the most important decisions, and one based on the results of a preference poll of the local population, was to leave the rustic exterior brick exposed, omitting Benoit’s original intent for faux-stone stucco. The decision has prompted a careful approach to conserving the irregular brickwork, including extensive repointing, replacement of deteriorated units and also the application of waterproof coatings, all based on extensive laboratory testing by the Construction Department of the Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Industrial and the Universidad Tecnológica Nacional. While eschewing the originally intended exterior finishes, the design team paradoxically opted for the completion of the towers, pinnacles and finials that were never built, requiring foundation reinforcement to carry the additional weight in a number of places. Similarly, for the windows, work is proceeding for the installation of new stained glass units according to designs selected through a competition several years ago but never executed. Of 89 windows, only 39 had stained glass panels imported from Germany and France earlier in this century.The resulting project is extraordinary not only because of the technical conservation and restoration treatments, but more so because of the cutting-edge computerized approach to documentation and project management instituted by the Executive Unit of the Cathedral under the direction of ICOMOS Argentina members Guillermo Rubén García and Jorge Bozzano.To establish accurate graphic representations of existing conditions, an elaborate combination of techniques was used, involving at various stages the use of ultrasound sensors, video recordings, photography, physical measurements and architectural stereophotgrammetry, all assisted by helicopters, scaffolding, cherry pickers, walkie talkies, and even alpinism down the sides of the building.The restitution of all the data has made possible detailed digitized drawings of the most minute details and elaborate interactive electronic models of Benoit=s original concepts, existing conditions (accurately showing settlement, deviations and missing/deteriorated elements), plus the various restoration options that were to be considered. Through enhanced programming use, specific materials, elements or areas of the building have been linkedto descriptions of pathologies, diagnoses and treatments; historical data and other important information to be considered in the restoration and conservation process.Acting as its own general contractor, the Executive Unit of the Cathedral, issues all requests for proposals for the individual portions of the work. Bid packages are issued in electronic format, and responses by individual contractors must be in the same manner, with only one hard copy required for legal reasons. In spite of the fast pace of the work to meet the completion deadline of 1999, quality control mechanisms have not fallen by the wayside. All workers on site must be prequalified, and contractors are urged to make use of the project to train apprentices and conservators. Contractors must also have computer capabilities to fulfill the electronic tracking of the work and the billings. Full time remote monitoring is done with video cameras mounted throughout the building=s exterior.So far, the new reinforcing foundations following the Italian technique of palli radice are in place and ready to receive the added weight of the new towers and the fire prevention water storage tanks that will be located inside them. Exterior brick repointing, restoration and waterproofing are completed halfway around the building. The stained glass atelier, functioning in the Cathedral=s own crypt is also using digitized images to build the required panels. Pinnacles are to be cast and raised to their location in the coming months.As could be expected, the project has become quite a sensation, and a considerable amount of the technical team=s time must be dedicated to receiving conservators, architects, benefactors and politicians who come from all over the world to understand the project methodology and see the work first-hand. Their willingness to share the experience does not stop with VIP=s and friends; the Executive Unit of the Cathedral has an ambitious outreach program for the local population, including a Cathedral museum and a crypt hall for changing local exhibits. Their web site — www.catedral.laplata.net — unfortunately only reveals a small part of the story.From their office in the crypt, surrounded by massive brick foundations eerily illuminated by computer screens, Messrs Bozzano and Garcia are quick to point out that once the work is done, the computers will go on working, since they plan for the Cathedral to be the most Aintelligent building@ in Argentina. Security, fire control, lighting, ventilation and heating all will be regulated by the elaborate programs that will take the Cathedral of La Plata safely into the next millennium. ‘SAVING THE BUILT HERITAGE OF THE GEORGIAN REPUBLICA delegation of six high-level preservation officials from the Georgian Republic visited US/ICOMOS to exchange experiences and discuss possible areas of cooperation between institutions in the United States and Georgia. The visit was part of an International Visitor Program supported by the United States Information Agency. Among the visitors were Guram Gabidzashvili and Koki Zhorzholadze of the Ministry of Culture and Ms Maka Dvalishvili of the Georgian Arts and Culture Center (e-mail: email@example.com) who volunteered to become the delegation’s permanent liaison upon their return to Tbilisi.Georgia’s built heritage includes a rich mixture of historic urban districts, such as that of Old Tbilisi; medieval fortified settlements in remote mountain settings, such as Shatili and Mutso; and an extraordinary collection of stone churches and monastic complexes dating from the 9th to the 12th centuries. Two sites have been recognized by the World Heritage List: the City-Museum Reserve of Mtskheta, and the Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery.The remote location of many of these sites, earthquakes, lack of funds, the institutional reorganization associated with independence from the former Soviet Union and the ethnic fighting have made the protection of this heritage difficult. In spite of the many obstacles, preservationists in Georgia have come together to create appropriate agencies and to obtain financial support at the national and international levels. The resulting broad-based initiative, known as the State Program for Cultural Heritage Development in Georgia, seeks to develop a first-aid approach to highly endangered sites while focusing on heritage sites as living tools to solidify the national identity and promote socio-economic development. Conceived as a partnership between public and private, as well as national and international entities, the initiative has already achieved some of its early objectives, such as new heritage legislation now being considered by Parliament, and a traditional crafts development project supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The World Bank and the European Community have also provided significant funding to support the initiative.A set of fact sheets in English – a sort of menu – has been developed outlining the nature and history of several Georgian heritage sites, as well as specific conservation needs. In Shatili, a complex medieval fortified compound located on a narrow ravine in the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains, the proposed work is broken down into four stages, namely emergency consolidations, cleaning, restoration and regeneration of the separate objects, with a total cost estimate of $250,000. In the Tskhinvali district, the 12th century Church of Ikorta is to be restored to permit once again a monastic use, something that will help ease ethnic and demographic problems in the region. Ikorta is the earliest example of a domed stone church, and its mural paintings have been damaged by water penetration from rain and snow, a problem that was exacerbated with the additional damage from the 1991 earthquake, which caused the collapse of the dome. $40,000 is being sought for its immediate emergency protection. A similar case, and one of equal importance are the ruins of the Korogo Complex in the Dusheti region, which include the Church of the Virgin, known for its unique eave frieze. Korogo has great tourism potential because of its proximity to the Gudauri ski area. $50,000 for urgent structural work is needed to stabilize this site.The religious site of Jvari, part of the World Heritage site of Mtshkheta, has strikingly austere architecture in a dramatic natural setting. Conservation problems at this site are compounded by the action of windblown sand and atmospheric pollution, which are abrasively eroding the sculpted stone reliefs. An estimated $72,000 will be necessary to complete materials testing and the six stages of the consolidation and restoration project.The challenge of preserving Old Tbilisi is far more complex, as is always the case in living urban districts. For many decades, its fabric has been eroded by a population density much higher than the building stock and the infrastructure can possibly sustain. Utility services (water, gas, communications) are either grossly inadequate or in advanced disrepair. The 19th century ceramic pipes of the water distribution system have collapsed. As an added problem, the reconstruction of the river embankments in the 1950s is blamed for the disastrous results on the subsoil water level, which has risen to the point that Tbilisi is described by a Georgian preservation expert as “sitting on water.”While Georgia has highly qualified and hard-working preservation professionals, it is clear that international cooperation will be needed to save its important cultural heritage sites. Particular areas of expertise are needed to provide specialized technical assistance. The Georgians are also seeking to establish a permanent dialogue with preservation institutions and universities in the United States and elsewhere. To address the need to enhance resource management capabilities, partnerships are being sought to stage narrow-focused conferences, symposia and workshops.Travel for the delegation from Georgia was made possible through the International Visitor Program of the US Information Agency, under a grant agreement with the Programming Division of Meridian International Center. “RESCUING TYREUNESCO Director-General Federico Mayor has launched an international campaign to save the archaeological site of the ancient Phoenician city of Tyre, a World Heritage Site in Lebanon. Mr Mayor announced that a special account for the campaign has been established containing an initial $75,000 from UNESCO’s regular budget and $25,000 from the World Monuments Fund in New York.The city of cedars, Tyre was an important learning, trade and political center in the Mediterranean for thousands of years, during which period the various powers that took over its control left their individual cultural mark. Herodotus dates its foundation as 2750 BC. The sequence of its conquerors include some of the most readily recognizable names of ancient history: Nebuchadnezzar, Darius the Great, Alexander the Great.Uncomfortably close at times of war to the Lebanese-Israeli border, Tyre has been the victimized by standing in the path of conflict. The old amphitheater and the old parts of the city bear the mark of artillery shells. Unauthorized opening of ancient tombs, along with the bulldozers used in incredibly brazen looting excavations have added to the damage. Tyre is also now threatened by encroachment from uncontrolled development. With no planning regulations or zoning, tall building and new constructions are rising out of the archaeological remains.May Abi Aql, writing in UNESCO SOURCES, reports that the Public Directorate of Antiquities has managed to designate 30 buildings in the old quarter for restoration. The Directorate has also blocked construction of a shopping center, and forced the re-alignment of a motor way, projects to protect the Roman aqueduct and the Rimali Cemetery. Recognizing that these actions are too limited to save Tyre, Lebanon has made an urgent appeal to the international community to help preserve the main archaeological sites. The most immediate priority is to begin digging at the threatened sites and to complete an archaeological inventory of the entire city. The next task is the preservation of the Phoenician tombs and crematoria discovered in 1995 and 1997 in the city center and the Byzantine basilica. A site museum and an information/reference center on Tyre’s history is planned for the near future “HELP FOR THE HERITAGE OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINAThere is a growing concern among Bosnian preservationists that heritage sites and monuments not damaged during the war are now being threatened by inappropriate interventions. According to Amira Dzirlo, a Bosnian architect living in the United States, the danger is particularly severe in the Austro-Hungarian historic districts of Sarajevo, and it is due in large part to the weakening of the institutional structures responsible for protecting the cultural heritage. The process for securing construction and occupational permits is failing, and all sorts of inappropriate alterations are occurring both with and without permits. In monumental sites, the sense of urgency brought about by the post-war reconstruction has resulted in hasty repairs, such as the whitewashing of important mural decorations in the interior of one of Sarajevo’s mosques.At the invitation of the Voice of America, US/ICOMOS Executive Director, Gustavo Araoz, joined Amira Dzirlo in a panel discussion broadcast to Bosnia and designed to foster a more professional approach to post-war reconstruction of heritage sites by adhering to the international preservation standards developed by ICOMOS. Particular emphasis was placed in Annex 8 of the Dayton Peace Agreement, which provides detailed steps for the protection of the cultural heritage of Bosnia.The immediate needs of the Bosnian cultural heritage have resonated in many place, but support has been particularly strong in Sweden. The Swedish Foundation for Cultural Heritage without Borders was established in 1995 as an act of solidarity with people who have seen their homes and heritage destroyed by wars and disasters. Its main purpose is to raise funds or to create other resources that will help set up protective measures, preservation, rebuilding, documentation, as well as supply technical assistance.The work of the Foundation was begun shortly after the Dayton Agreement when a group of Swedish experts traveled to Bosnia to study the needs for immediate help. Out of that initial effort emerged specific projects that included repairs and reconstruction to Zemaljski Muzej (National Museum) in Sarajevo and assistance with equipment and techniques for preventive conservation of the collections. A second project, in co-operation with the Institute for the Protection of Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of Bosnia and Herzegovina, chose the medieval town of Maglaj as its pilot site. So far the work has concentrated on the 16th-century Mosque Kursumlija Dzamoja, a classic example of Ottoman architecture and, in Konak, an early 19th century inn, both badly damaged by grenades.ICOMOS Sweden has announced that it is working to facilitate the establishment of a Bosnian ICOMOS Committee by supporting the international dues of five of its members for a period of three years. Similar initiatives have occurred elsewhere to support other ICOMOS National Committees of countries strapped for foreign currency.For more information, contact Margareta Biörnstad, fax: 011-468-15 19 38. “PORTUGUESE APPEAL FOR SUPPORTThe Center for the Study of Portugal in Estoril has issued an appeal for written support on behalf of the Village and Cultural Landscape of Sintra, a World Heritage Site east of Lisbon. Sintra Municipal authorities are proposing drastic changes in land use ordinance and traffic patterns that could negatively affect the significance and beauty of the historic town and its mountain setting. Their objective is to change existing preservation legislation to make the area more attractive to the advancing suburbanization spreading out from the Lisbon metropolitan area. The proposals include greater construction density, smaller lot sizes, and conversion of a rail line into a paved highway. Local activists fear that the new legislation will sacrifice green areas in favor of paved developments and concrete jungles – selvas de betão, the locals call it. While the citizens of Sintra have already taken steps to mobilize local public opinion, the Center for the Study of Portugal feels that international support will be necessary to validate the concerns of the Sintrans. For more information, or to send a letter of opposition to the proposed suburbanization of Sintra, contact Mr Arcadi Nebolsine, 64 East 86th Street, New York NY 10028 “20th CENTURY JAPANESE LANDMARK THREATENEDThe Sho-Hondo, a Buddhist Temple at the foot of Mount Fuji and a significant architectural landmark of the Modern Movement in Japan is being threatened with demolition by the Reverend Nikken Abe, the High Priest of Nichiren Shoshu. Reverend Abe claims that the building is structurally unsafe, but hundreds of architects and preservationists have rallied to ask that it be repaired as needed in order to ensure its preservation.The Sho Hondo was designed by Kimio Yokoyama and completed in 1972 to a budget of $10 million contributed by 8 million people worldwide. The monumental building has a unique suspension roof designed to symbolize a crane in flight. Its huge plaza in the shape of a lotus blossom accommodates up to 60,000 worshippers. Recently, the Reverend Abe stated that the building must also come down because most of the original construction funds were donated by Soka Gakkai, a Buddhist lay organization of 12 million people that was excommunicated by him in 1991. Request for independent structural inspections have all been denied.US/ICOMOS member and former Intern David Anthone, Chairman of the newly-formed International Committee to Save the Sho-Hondo (ICSS), has written that the Sho-Hondo is significant as one of the finest representatives of post-war architecture in Japan. “The proposed demolition…would be recorded as one of the great architectural losses of the 20th century, ” Mr Anthone added. He is also Chair of the DOCOMOMO US Group.US/ICOMOS Board members Richard Pieper (Jan Hird Pokorny Assocaites in New York) and Stephen Kelley (Wiss Janney Elstner Assocaites in Chicago) have joined the ICSS, as has Executive Director Gustavo Araoz. Others in ICOMOS joining the ICSS include James Marston Fitch, Dinu Bumbaru, Peter Brink, Phyllis Lambert and John Stubbs.For information contact ICSS, 150 5th Ave, Ste. 816, New York NY 10118. Phone: 212 727 7185. Or visit the website: www.save-shohondo.com “AFGHAN HERITAGE:THE PLIGHT GOES ONOn May 18th, Maulavi Hotak, Afghan Deputy Minister of Information and Culture, and Najibullah Popal, Deputy Director of National Museums of Afghanistan visited the office of US/ICOMOS to exchange ideas on increasing cooperation and exchange of ideas about heritage preservation, as well as to learn more about conservation programs and institutions in the United States. The delegation from Afghanistan toured the US under the aegis of the USIA International Visitor Program administered by the Institute for International Education. The stated purpose of the program was to demonstrate the important role centers of historic and cultural studies in the United States play in defining our nationhood.Because of the extended period of war and civil unrest, many heritage sites in Afghanistan have suffered tremendous damage and continue to be exposed to outright destruction. At one time, Buddhist images carved on cliff faces were being bombarded by mortar shells, causing extensive outrage among the international heritage community and inciting UNESCO Secretary General Federico Mayor to call for their protection. The archaeological collection of the Kabul Museum was ransacked and sold illicitly in the international art market. Two years ago, The University of York Post-War Reconstruction and Development Unit reported that three quarters of a million people in Kabul had been displaced into half the area inhabited four years earlier. In its latest issue, UNESCO News reports that the 1600-year old Buddhist Tower of Minar-e-Chakari that overlooked Kabul collapsed during the night last Spring. During his visit to US/ICOMOS, Mr Popal confirmed this disastrous event and showed photographs of this important heritage site. While the tower had been weakened by twenty years of artillery shells, the immediate cause for its collapse remains unclear. Other sites seriously damaged by war include museums and historic buildings in Kabul.During the visit, the sense of tremendous urgency in addressing the threats in many sites was evident. International assistance at the levels necessary has been very slow in coming, Mr Hotak reported. This, in turn, has led to questions as to whether it will arrive at all. Bilateral assistance is made difficult because the country remains largely in diplomatic isolation. There is no ICOMOS National Committee in Afghanistan, an initiative that was characterized to the visitors by US/ICOMOS Executive Director, Gustavo Araoz, as an important initial step. As a non-governmental organization, an Afghan ICOMOS could expedite the dissemination of information about the peril of Afghan heritage sites, and also become instrumental in fostering broader international support and funding for various rescue activities “WMF and AMERICAN EXPRESS ANNOUNCE WATCH GRANTSNineteen endangered historic sites from the World Monuments Watch List will receive $1 Million in grants form American Express, was announced by World Monuments Fund President Bonnie Burnham and Harvey Golub, Chairman and CEO of American Express at a reception in the US Capitol.The World Monuments Watch, a global program launched in 1995 with lead funding from American Express Company, aims to call attention to imperiled cultural heritage sites around the world and direct timely financial support to their preservation. American Express has committed $5 million to the program over a five-year period, and the first $2 million from American Express leveraged at least twice that amount from other sources.”American Express support is the backbone of the World Monuments Watch program,” said Bonnie Burnham. “The choice of projects for their grants is responsive both to the wide geographical range of sites on the endangered list, and the surpassing quality of these works. For us, the American Express grants are a challenge: our job is to multiply their support every year with funds from other donors.”Explaining the long-standing support of his company for heritage conservation, American Express CEO Harvey Golub stated: “As a major player in the tourism industry, we have a vested interest in saving endangered heritage – one of the key motivators for travel. The World Monuments Fund has proven to be remarkably effective in drawing attention to the plight of some of the world’s great sites and monuments. We are proud to be associated with WMF in this endeavor and encourage other donors – especially our colleagues from the travel industry – to join us.”The sites selected to receive grants form American Express are Juiu Hall in Beijing, China; The Follies and Conservatories of Lednice and Valtice Villages in the Czech Republic; the Mortuary Temple of Ahmenhotep III in Luxor, Egypt; the Chateau de Chantilly in France; Ancient Pompeii, Italy; the Old Iron Bridge in Spanish Town, Jamaica; Wadi Mousa in Petra, Jordan; Kampung Cina River Frontage in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia; the Mnajdra Prehistoric Temples in Malta; the Palacio de Bellas Artes in Mexico City; the Uch Monument Complex in Bahawalpur, Pakistan; the basilica of San Sebastián in Manila, Philippines; the Vistulamouth Fortress in Gdansk, Poland; Brancusi’s Endless Column in Bucharest, Romania; the Russakov Club in Moscow, Russia; the Windmills of Majorca in Spain; the Masaka Cathedral in Uganda; the St Vincent Street Church in Glasgow, Scotland; Fort Apache in the Apache Tribal Land, Arizona, USA; and Mesa Verde National Park in Colorado, USA.World Monuments Fund has issued its third call for nominations to the World Monuments Watch List of 100 Most Endangered Sites. Deadline for nominations is 1 December 1998. A new publication titled Criteria, Results and Indicators: Case Studies from the 1996-1997 List of 100 Most Endangered Sites has been prepared to give clearer orientation to potential nominators and to show how inclusion in the Watch List can be used to mobilize public opinion and financial support for the sites. To obtain a copy of this publication plus the nomination form, write WMF/Watch, 949 Park Ave, New York NY 10028 USA. Fax: 1-212-517-9494 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org “COALITION OF HISTORIC SITE MUSEUMS OF CONSCIENCERuth Abram, president of the Lower East Side Tenement Museum in New York, has announced an effort to establish a world-wide coalition of historic site museums that employ the power of place to initiate and sustain dialogue on some of the enduring social and political issues of our times. The concept for the coalition has emerged in response to a powerful idea, namely that the purpose of interpreting historic sites is to safeguard humanity’s achievements in terms of human rights, freedom and an open democratic society. There is a growing desire to preserve not only sites associated with good deeds and victories, but also with villains and failures. There is interest to recall events and places associated with dismay, even shame. Examples of this trend are abundant, and include the historic site at Mansanar, the WW II internment site for Japanese-Americans in California; the Anne Frank Museum in Amsterdam; Auschwitz and other concentration camps; and the slave-trade holding houses in the Coastal Castles of Ghana and the Island of Gorée in Senegal.The proposed coalition is meant to sustain and expand this concept, furnishing a vehicle through which historic sites of conscience may obtain mutual support and assistance. By attracting global attention, the coalition also aims to foster a modicum of protection for those sites whose work is stymied or prohibited by controlling authorities hostile to a dialogue.Other goals of the coalition are to validate the emergence of historic site museums as active participants in safeguarding and promoting democratic principles and human rights; to draw international attention to any attempt to interfere with the interpretation of historic sites and to encourage other sites to assume a similar role.Referring to the coalition’s desire to link the relevance of the historic message in cultural heritage sites with the world that we live in, Gustavo F Araoz, Executive Director of US/ICOMOS, stated, “This is the ultimate purpose in preserving both our collective memory and our historic sites, but one that is often lost in the daily complexities of managing sites.”For more information, contact Ruth Abrams at the Lower East Side Tenement Museum, Fax: 212-431-0402 “PEOPLE GOING PLACESEduard Sekler, US/ICOMOS Fellow and the Osgood Hooker Professor of Visual Art Emeritus, and professor of architecture emeritus at Harvard University, has been awarded the Royal Nepalese decoration “Gorakha Dakshin Bahu” for his services to the preservation of historic buildings and sites in the Kathmandu Valley. Professor Sekler is a member of the UNESCO Campaign Review Committee for the International Campaign for the Safeguarding of the Kathmandu Valley, editor and co-author of the Masterplan for the Conservation of the Cultural Heritage in the Kathmandu Valley, and co-founder and first Chairman of the Kathmandu Valley Preservation Trust. ” A National Chilean Committee for the Conservation of Industrial Heritage (TICCIH-Chile) was established last March in Santiago. Jaime Migone was elected its first president. Chile has a vast industrial heritage associated with agriculture and mining, a large part of which is in imminent danger because of its obsolescence and remote location, much of it abandoned in the desert of Chile’s north. ” The Heritage Preservation Services Program of the National Park Service’s National Center for Cultural Resources Stewardships and Partnership, directed by de Teel Patterson Tiller, has completed its reorganization with the selection of permanent Chiefs for its three branches. Sharon C. Park, FAIA, was selected as Chief of the Technical Preservation Services Branch; H. Bryan Mitchell was selected Chief of the Preservation Initiatives Branch; and Joseph T. Wallis was selected Chief of the State, Tribal and Local Programs Branch. The Heritage Preservation Services Program helps citizens and communities identify, evaluate, protect and preserve historic properties in the United States and its territories. It provides a broad range of products and services, financial assistance and incentives, educational guidance, and technical information in support of its mission. ” Francisco López Morales, of ICOMOS Mexico was invited to Arizona, where, led by US/ICOMOS member Jacquie McNulty, of Tucson, he studied the challenge of preserving shared heritage along the Border. A cultural tourism workshop during the Arizona-Mexico Commission plenary session is planned in Sonora in November ” Pamela Hawkes, US/ICOMOS Trustee, and Charles Birnbuam, US/ICOMOS Historic Landscapes Committee Chair, formed part of the Harvard Loeb Fellows Study Tour to Cuba in ealy June. “PUBLICATIONSENGLISH HERITAGE LAUNCHES NEW TECHNICAL PUBLICATION SERIESResearch Transactions is an English Heritage new publication series aimed at all those concerned with the technical and scientific aspects of building conservation. The series is an entirely new venture created by the Architectural Conservation team to effectively release the scientific findings from the first five years of its strategic technical research program into historic building materials decay and their treatment.The inaugural volume on Metals is edited by US/ICOMOS member Jeanne Marie Teutonico, who works with English Heritage in London. It includes investigations into the behavior of cast-iron structures in fire; research into the decay of sheet metal roof coverings; tests on short-circuiting or sideflash in lightning conductors and the pioneering in-situ cathodic protection of buried metal fixings in historic masonry, based on the work on the Inigo Jones Fateway on the grounds of Chiswick House. Case studies, also reported, describe the conservation of a lead sphinx statue, also at Chiswick House, and the testing of methods to clean and coat architectural wrought ironwork located in a marine environment, based on the maintenance work at Garrison Church in Portsmouth.Another four volumes are currently being prepared for publication during the next twelve months. Two volumes will deal with a variety of subjects covering studies of the performance and treatment of porous building materials; one volume will be dedicated to a study of earthen construction; and the fourth volume brings together reports on certain aspects of timber decay and its treatment. English Heritage’s Architectural Conservation team sees the Transactions Series as filling an important niche in the organization’s overall publishing strategy, particularly so far as scientific and technical information is concerned. At the popular end of the market, English Heritage publishes a variety of free leaflets on policy and practice for the general public. At a more technical level, there are a free quarterly newsletter, The Conservation Bulletin; technical policy statements and advisory notes, all of which give technical guidance without the detail of why such advice should be taken. The Transaction series is the vehicle to explain the scientific back-up for such advice.For details on English Heritage activities, current research and publications, visit the website: www.english-heritage.org.ukTo order “Metals” English Heritage Transaction Series, contact James & James Publishers in London, Fax: 011-44171-387-8998. E-mail: email@example.com , or visit the website: www.jxj.com “A DAHLEM WORKSHOP REPORT ON HISTORIC STONE STRUCTURESSaving Our Architectural Heritage: The Conservation of Historic Stone Structures. N.S. Baer and R. Snethlage, Editors. It has become obvious that public policy will play a critical role in determining which portion of our architectural heritage will survive and which will be left to decay and disappear. While the past two decades have witnessed a growing body of research devoted to understanding the fundamental mechanisms of damage to stone and to developing strategies for its conservation, virtually no research has been conducted on the quantification of the economic role of stone buildings and structures as well as the valuation of cultural property.In order to introduce the tools and methods of economic analysis to the public policy debate on preservation of cultural property, a multi-disciplinary team of physical scientists worked with social scientists under the aegis of the Dahlem Konferenzen in Berlin. Their aim was to explore how societal, economic and ethical consideration might be integrated with technological options to lead to informed policy decisions. Recognizing that economic analysis must rest on firm technical data and sound conservation options, the state of our knowledge of mechanisms and rates of damage, the diagnosis of condition, and the evaluation of treatment options were subjected to critical review; special attention was given to the identification of promising, innovative areas of research.This volume represents an important first step in rationalizing the decision making process for the setting of public policy in the preservation of our architectural heritage. Consisting of 21 articles, the book identifies critical gaps in our knowledge of the deterioration mechanisms of stone, suggesting innovative approaches to their study, as well as novel remedial measures. It also addresses the socioeconomic factors that determine preservation actions for the cultural heritage.The Dahlem Konferenzen organizes workshops of an interdisciplinary nature to promote international, interdisciplinary exchange of scientific information and ideas to stimulate inter-national cooperation in research, and to develop and test new models conducive to more effective communications among scientists. To order, contact Andrea Sharp, John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, UK, Fax: 011-44 12443 770460 “OTHER NEW TITLES FROM THE UK:Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, has announced the following new publications for 1998:Historic Floors: Their History and Conservation, by Jane Fawcett; Conservation of Building and Decorative Stone, by J. Ashurst and F.G. Dimes; Context: New Buildings in Historic Settings, by J. Warren, J. Worthington and S Taylor; and Laser Cleaning in Conservation: An Introduction, by Martin Cooper. For full information on these and other titles, plus how to order, visit the website at: http://www.bh.com “FROM MC GRAW-HILLFibre-Optics for Functional Architectural Lighting, by US/ICOMOS member Gersil N Kay. Long an advocate of fibre-optics as a low impact technique for illuminating historic buildings, Ms Kay brings her full empirical experience through step-by-step checklists, how-to illustrations, photos, plans and actual case studies from around the world. To order, write to McGraw-Hill, 11 W 19th St, 4th Floor, New York NY 10011-14285. Attn: Judith Reiss.IN FRENCHArchitecture du XXe siècle, le patrimoine protegé. Proceeding of the November 1997 round table organized by the Direction de l’Architecture. Part of the series Cahiers, published by the Ecole Nationale du Patrimoine. To order, write: Ecole nationale du Patrimoine, 117, bd St Germain, 75006 Paris, France. Phone:011-33-1-44 41 16 41….AND FROMTHE GETTY CONSERVATION INSTITUTEMortality Immortality: The Legacy of 20th-Century Art. Miguel Angel Corzo, Editor. Which objects or event will define the art of our time? Who will decide what is to be preserved for posterity and how will that be done? These are among the questions posed in this thirty-four essay volume, based on a conference on the preservation of contemporary art held at the Getty Center in March 1998. Concepts may find crossover application to the preservation of 20th Century Architecture. For information, contact Getty Trust Publications, Phone: 800-223-3431; Fax: 818-779-0051. For e-mail orders, consult the site at www.getty.edu/publications “TRAININGThe National Preservation Institute has announced its list of 1998-1999 Seminars in Historic Preservation and Cultural Resources Management, to be held in various cities throughout the United States. Depending on its nature, each courses is directed at specific audiences. General topics include Cultural Resource Management Basics; Laws and Regulations; Economic Incentives; Issues of Design and Application; and Working with History. For information on seminar schedules, costs, locations and specific course agendas, call 1-703-765-0100, or E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org; visit the website at www.npi.org “GRANTSThe National Center for Preservation Technology and Training (NCPTT) has issued its 1999 call for Proposals for its Preservation technology and Training Grants. Grants are available in eight categories: Information management; training and education; applied/fundamental research; environmental effects of outdoor pollutants; technology transfer; analytical facility support; conference support; publications support. For information, contact NCPTT, Fax-on-demand: 1-318-357-3214. E-mail automatic reply, send blank message to email@example.com “INTERNATIONAL PRESERVATION CALENDARInternational Symposium on the Cultural Heritage of Amazonian Countries, Manaus, Brazil, 14-17 July 1998. Sponsored by ICOMOS Brazil, with participation of ICOMOS Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Contact ICOMOS Brasil, Fax: 011-55-11 873-6796 “The Cold War and Its Implications, Nationally and Internationally: the 2nd Los Alamos International History Conference, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA, 9-12 August, 1998. Sponsored by the University of New Mexico at Los Alamos and the Los Alamos Historical Society. For information, call 505-662-7481. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org “Rescue, Preservation and Reuse of the Industrial Heritage, II Latin American Conference, Havana, Cuba, 8-10 September 1998. Organized by Consejo Nacional del Patrimonio de Cuba and CENCRM and sponsored by UNESCO, Generalitat de Catalunya and TICCIH. Write Consejo Nacional del Patrimonio, Calle 4 No. 8-10, Vedado, Havana. Fax 011-537-662106 “ICOMOS Bureau, Executive Committee and Advisory Committee Meetings. Stockholm, Sweden, 9-13 September 1998. Contact US/ICOMOS, fax: 202-842-1861. E-mail: email@example.com “Historic Towns: A Heritage for the Future. Stockholm, Sweden, 14-15 September 1998. Organized by ICOMOS Sweden and the Swedish National Heritage Board. Post-Conference tours to Ecomuseum Bergslagen, Visby, the Göta Canal or Helsinki. For information: ICOMOS/Stockholm Convention Bureau, Fax: 011 468 34 84 41. e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org “Panamerican Federation of Engineers Associations’ V Panamerican Technical Meeting on Historic Heritage, San Juan Puerto Rico, 1-3 October 1998. Call for papers has been issued on the following topics: Walled Cities of the Americas; Economic and Tourism Development for Historic Districts; Farms, Plantations and Mills; Documentation and Research of Historic Heritage; Restoration Technology. Submit 200-word abstracts in English or Spanish on or before 15 August, 1998, to Jose M Izquierdo, 1598 calle Cavalieri, Urb. Caribe, San Juan PR 00927. E-mail: email@example.com Contact: UPADI, Fax: 787-250-8131 “Museums and Cultural Diversity, the 1998 ICOM General Assembly and Symposium. Melbourne, Australia, 10-16 October 1998. Contact John H Button, Fax: 011-613-9650 3535. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org “Reconstruction of Historic Towns, Elblag, Poland, 24-27 September 1998. Organized by ICOMOS Poland. For information, write: Oddzial Wojewodski Panstwowej Sluzby Ochrony Zabytkow w Elbalgu. ul.Sw.Ducha 19, 82300 Elblag, Poland. “Conservation of 20th Century Architecture, the 19th International ICOMOS MEXICO Symposium, Mexico City, 20-24 October 1998. Contact ICOMOS Mexico, Fax: 011-525-277 3166. E-mail: email@example.com “US/ICOMOS at the National Trust Annual Meeting:US/ICOMOS Breakfast, 7 to 8:15 am, October 23.Educational Session: Why Do We Do What We Do? The Art Of Preservation.” Register early before the usual selloutInternational Conference on Green Areas, Public Spaces and the Urban Environment, Havana, Cuba, 21-23 October 1998. Sponsored by Grupo para el Desarrollo Integral de la Habana. For information, contact Mario González, Fax: 011-537-247168. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org “International Conference on Art, Antiquity and the Law: Preserving our Global Cultural Heritage, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA, 30 October-1 November 1998. Organized by US/ICOMOS member, Prof Archer St Clair Harvey, sponsored by Global Programs and the Department of Art History of Rutgers University. Registration free but required by 20 September. For information, contact Henriette Cohen, Phone 732-932-7066. E-mail: email@example.com. See web site: www.rci.rutgers.edu/~allconf “APT’s 3rd Symposium on Museums in Historic Buildings, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA, 5-7 November 1998. Specific topic for this year is “Light and Lighting in Historic Structures that House Collections.” Symposium will include exhibits by manufacturers of illumination equipment for historic structures. For information, contact Thomas Taylor, Chair of the Steering Committee, Fax: 757-220-7787. E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org “Culture and Tourism ’98, Budapest, Hungary, 9-13 November, 1998. Contact Istvan Kiraly, Fax: 011 361 218-6560. “Façadism and Urban Identity, an international inter-European conference. Paris, France, 2-4 December 1998. Sponsored by ICOMOS and the French Ministry of Culture and Communications. Call for Papers open through 20 June, 1998. Contact ICOMOS, fax: 011-331-4566 0622. E-mail: email@example.com “Annual Conference of the Society for Historical Archaeology, Salt Lake City, Utah, 5-10 January 1999. For information, call 801-394-0013 “On the Frontiers of Conservation: Discovery, Reappraisal, and Innovation. The George Wright Society’s 10th Annual Conference on research and resource Management in Parks or on Public Land. Asheville, North Carolina, USA, 22-26 March 1999. Call for papers due 15 October 1998. Contact GWS, PO Box 65, Hancock , MI 49930-0065, phone: 906-487-9722.E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Or visit the website for an on-line abstract submission form: www.portup.com/~gws/gws99.html “64th Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Chicago, 24-28 March 1999. Call for papers open through 2 September 1998. Contact SAA, Fax: 202 789-0284. E-mail: email@example.com “ICOM Conservation Committee Triennial Meeting, Lyon, France, 29 August-3 September 1999. Call for papers open through 30 November 1998. Contact ICOM, fax: 011-331-4306 7862. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org “XVIII Symposium of the ICOMOS Committee on Architectural and Archaeological Photogrammetry, Recife/Olinda, Brazil, 3-6 October 1999. In conjunction with the XIX Brazilian Congress on Cartography. Symposium sessions will be supplemented by technical presentations, software demos and poster sessions. Tours to Olinda (World heritage Sites), Porto de Galinhas and Itamaracá. For information, contact Mr Nei Erling in Rio, Fax: 011-55-21-262-2823. E-mail: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org “XII ICOMOS GENERAL ASSEMBLY AND INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM, Mexico City, Guanajuato, Morelia and Guadalajara, 17-23 October, 1999. Contact ICOMOS Mexicano, Fax: 011-525-277-3166. E-mail: email@example.com “US/ICOMOS BOARD OF TRUSTEESAnn Webster Smith, ChairmanRobert C. Wilburn, Vice-ChairmanBlaine Cliver, SecretaryDarwina Neal, TreasurerAt large: William A.V. Cecil, Jr., NC William S. Colburn, MichiganRoy E. Graham, Washington, DC Pamela W. Hawkes, MassachusettsJohn T. Joyce, Washington, DCStephen J. Kelley, IllinoisJames P. Kiernan, Washington, DCR. Randolph Langenbach, Washington, DC Spencer Leineweber, HawaiiFrank G. Matero, PennsylvaniaRichard Pieper, New YorkConstance W. Ramirez, Virginia Thomas Schmidt, Pennsylvania Peter H. Stott, MassachusettsMichael R. Taylor, New MexicoTroy D. Thompson, IndianaEx Officio: American Association of Museums American Institute of ArchitectsAmerican Society of Landscape Architects Archaeological Institute of AmericaNational Park ServiceNational Trust for Historic Preservation Smithsonian InstitutionSociety for American Archaeology United States Information Agency Society of Architectural HistoriansUS/ICOMOS STAFFGustavo F. Araoz, AIA, Executive DirectorEllen M. Delage, Program DirectorPatricia Bovers Ball, Newsletter EditorVolunteers: Svetlana PopovicICOMOSRoland Silva, Sri Lanka, PresidentJean-Louis Luxen, Belgium, Secretary GeneralJan Jessurun, Netherlands, Treasurer GeneralVice Presidents: Mamadou Berthe, SenegalJoseph Phares, LebanonEsteban Prieto, Dominican RepublicChristiane Schmuckle-Mollard, FranceAnn Webster Smith, USAICOMOS INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEES: Archaeological Heritage Management* Photogtammetry Cultural Tourism* Rock Art Economics of Conservation Stained Glass Earthen Structures* Stone Historic Gardens and Sites* Structures Historic Towns* Training* Inventories* Underwater Cultural Heritage Legislation* Vernacular Architecture* Wood** Corresponding US/ICOMOS National Specialized CommitteesICOMOS NATIONAL COMMITTEESAlgeriaAngolaArgentinaAustraliaAustriaBelgiumBeninBoliviaBrazilHungaryBurkina FasoCameroonCanadaChili ChinaColombiaCosta RicaCroatiaCubaCyprusCzech Republic DenmarkDominican Rep. EcuadorEgyptEstoniaEthiopiaFinlandFranceGabonGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGreeceGuatemalaHaitiHondurasHungaryIndiaIndonesiaIrelandIsraelItalyIvory CoastJamaicaJapanJordanKorea, P.D.RLatviaLebanonLithuaniaLuxembourgMacedoniaMalawiMali MaltaMauritaniaMexicoNetherlandsNew ZealandNorwayPakistanPanamaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPolandPortugalRomaniaRussiaSalvadorSenegalSlovakiaSloveniaSouth AfricaSpainSri LankaSwedenSwitzerlandTanzaniaThailandTunisiaTurkeyUkraineUKUruguayUSAVenezuelaZaire ZambiaZimbabwe US/ICOMOS MISSION STATEMENTUS/ICOMOS fosters heritage conservation and historic preservation at the national and international levels through education and training, international exchange of people and information, technical assistance, documentation, advocacy and other activities consistent with the goals of ICOMOS and through collaboration with other organizations.US/ICOMOS membership includes professionals, practitioners, supporters and organizations committed to the protection, preservation and conservation of the world’s cultural heritage. US/ICOMOS is the U.S. National Committee of the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), the international nongovernmental organization dedicated to the preservation and conservation of the world’s heritage.US/ICOMOS NEWSLETTERThe US/ICOMOS Newsletter is published by US/ICOMOS six times a year. Members are encouraged to submit articles, illustrations and editorial items for inclusion in the Newsletter. Contributors are solely responsible for the facts and opinions stated herein, and publication in this Newsletter does not constitute an official endorsement by US/ICOMOS.Please send submissions and any inquiries to the Editor, US/ICOMOS Newsletter, 401 F Street, NW, Room 331, Washington, DC 20001-2728.This newsletter has been financed in part with Federal funds from the National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. However, the contents and opinions do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of the Interior.