In this Issue * International Conference: Seismic Retrofit and a Disaster at Assissi * Preserving Hispanic Built Heritage * US/ICOMOS Study Tour to Cuba * President Clinton’s 1999 Budget Proposal * ICAHM Meeting in Sri Lanka * ICOMOS Strategic Plan * World Bank Cultural Heritage Network * Call for Volunteers in Suriname * Earth Architecture Committee International * Notes from UNESCO Press * Training, Publications, CalendarINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE: SEISMIC RETROFIT AND A DISASTER AT ASSISIIn 1997, two strong earthquakes hit Umbria, Italy, severely damaging the priceless 13th-century Basilica of San Francesco in Assisi. The quake caused the tower of the Fiesole to crash to the ground, jumbled the tympanum of the upper Basilica, and shattered Cimabue’s priceless fresco, “Apostle Matthew with the view of Judea”. Four people were killed in the collapse, and Giotto and Lorinzetti frescoes (including the Cycle of the Passion and the Virgin with Child triptych) in the lower church were also threatened.One year later, at Washington, D.C’s Hirshhorn Museum, a group gathered to hear Giorgio Croci, the leader of the Italian stabilization team for Assisi, speak to the “Earthquakes and Artistic Monuments: Preventive Measures and Future Planning” symposium. Croci is the President of the ICOMOS Scientific Committee on the Analysis and Restoration of Structures of Architectural Heritage (ISCARSAH) and Professor of Structural Restoration Engineering at The University of Rome, “La Sapienza”. Croci said there was no intrinsic weakness in the Basilica, which had withstood many previous quakes. He attributed the 1997 damage to deteriorating mortar that had collected above the ribs of its Gothic vaults. The extra pressure created by the build-up was risky, he said, as the lateral thrusts of the Gothic arches made them unable to withstand the increased pressure from the quakes. This space, which he called the “entredos”, is located between the roof and the vault, and although it is a critical area, it is hard to inspect.The January 28th symposium was organized by The Smithsonian Institution, The Italian Embassy, The Italian Cultural Institute, and US/ICOMOS. Following Croci’s lecture, an Enrico Ghezzi film about the 1997 earthquake was shown. After intermission, a panel of experts discussed seismic retrofit and historic sites.The Engineering ChallengeAfter the quake, Croci said the first problem that had to be solved at Assisi was a purely logistical one: how to get a crane into the courtyard in front of the Basilica. The crane was far too large to fit through the gate.A metal scaffolding was urgently needed over the tympanum, as it was at risk of total collapse and far too precarious to dismantle. Croci’s team hired a second crane to lift the first one into the courtyard. This was a risky decision, Croci said, as it meant that two thousand tons of pressure from the cranes were being applied to the earth near the Basilica. (see photo, p.1)An eight-metre scaffolding was anchored to the transept, and a steel net was placed over it to hold the damaged blocks in place. Finally, the net was covered with an adhesive. The protection was in place just in the nick of time, Croci said, as another earthquake hit the area three hours after they finished. More than the loss of the tympanum had been a stake, as the total collapse of the tympanum would have destroyed the Lorenzetti frescoes underneath.A second intervention was done in the area over the vault to remove the built-up plaster that had collected there. In this intervention, great care was taken to suspend the inner vault by cables from the roof to ensure the safety of the people working on the building.A Filmmaker’s viewFollowing Professor Croci’s presentation, a short Enrico Ghezzi film, “Terremoto Girotondo”, was shown. The film was made for the Italian state television by the controversial Italian filmmaker to convey the feeling of chaos that follows an earthquake. Ghezzi juxtaposed images of the tower collapsing with historic photos and film clips. Some showed people running, monks twirling around in a kind of dizzying gyro, and piles of rubble. The soundtrack included loud crashes, the sounds of howling wind and plucked violins.Lessons from the Past, Challenges for the FutureDuring the panel discussion, experts discussed routine maintenance as a tool of seismic mitigation; the degree of intervention that should be taken on a historic building; as well as issues of safety and technology. Topics included the use of endoscopic analysis to diagnose decaying mortar, whether cracks should be filled by injection, and the need for a cautious approach to new methods and materials.One of the panelists was Melvyn Greene, seismic engineer from Torrance, California. He was a member of the U.S. Reconnaissance team sent to Umbria in 1997.Greene said that much can be learned from the Basilica, as it has survived a half-dozen significant earthquakes before 1997. One of these earthquakes is memorialized inside the lower Basilica in Giotto’s cycle of frescoes on the life of St Francis. There, one of the frescoes shows St. Francis helping a woman injured by a collapsing building.Panelists agreed that part of the reason for the endurance of so many historic Italian buildings has been aggressive intervention. In past centuries, significant alterations have been done at churches like S. Chiara, which had flying buttresses added to it in 1351, and buildings in Nocera Umbra, which were strengthened by brick buttresses and abutments.In Assisi, iron tie bars (tiranti) have been used since the middle ages to insure structural stability, and exterior wall anchors (chiavi) were also used to repair damage from the Gualdo Tadino earthquake of 1751; the Camerino earthquake of 1799; and the Valle del Topino earthquake of 1892.Panelist Stephen Kelley, a structural engineer and architect of Wiss, Janney, Elstner in Chicago said, “Preservationists need to consider their commitment to minimal intervention within an awareness of the possible costs: We are building doctors,” hesaid, “and monuments are our special patients. Our cure needsto be balanced with the ailment.” Kelley is US/ICOMOS’ representative to ISCARSAH.David Look, Chief of the NPS Resource Team for natural disaster restoration in the Pacific region, said it was clear the building had survived seismic disturbance well because of its basic design and geometry, which enabled it to resist forces in multiple directions. He also credited the excellent maintenance the building had received over many centuries.”Buildings that are well-maintained can resist the forces of nature,” he said, then added that “in the U.S., our historic buildings are at risk because we are in a period of deferred maintenance.””We tend to think of earthquakes as a California problem,” he said, “but the worst earthquake in U.S. history hit Illinois in 1812, and it caused the Mississippi river to flow backwards.”The evening ended as participants expressed their gratitude to the organizers of the symposium and called for more international forums on seismic mitigation in the future.PRESERVING THE HISPANIC BUILT HERITAGE OF THE UNITED STATESUS/ICOMOS representatives Michael Taylor and Robert Baca, Deputy Director and Director of New Mexico State Monuments, respectively, traveled to Spain last December to meet with Spanish government officials. They discussed three proposals for collaboration on the preservation of Spanish Colonial heritage in the U.S., cramming eleven meetings into a five-day whirl wind tour.Their proposals were for this year, and they focussed on New Mexico, as 1998 marks the 400th anniversary of the Spanish colonization of New Mexico.The proposals were:1) to establish a mid-career internship exchange between Navapalos (The Center for Earthen Architectural Studies inSpain) and Cornerstones Community Partnerships, a community-based program in New Mexico that works to preserve adobe churches as a part of a larger program to strengthen and preserve local culture.2) to enlist Spanish professionals in the development of a management plan for the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, a historic cultural corridor between Mexico City and Santa Fe that was established in the 16th century.3) to collaborate on an archaeological survey of El Rancho de Las Golondrinas, a museum near Santa Fe that depicts life on a Spanish Colonial ranch. The ranch is located on the Camino Real, and was a historic resting place for travellers. The ultimate goal of the survey is a site management plan for the complex.Taylor writes that, “The hospitality provided by the ICOMOS-Spain Executive Committee and its President, Maria Rosa Suarez-Inclan Ducassi, during the meetings in Madrid and Seville was tremendous.”Meetings were scheduled with many organizations, including the Casa de America, the Relaciones Culturales de Mininsterio de Asuntos Exteriores, the Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, and the Mayor and other officials of Alcala de Henares, a World Heritage university town just outside of Madrid.Taylor also met with officials of the autonomous government of Andalucia (the Instituto Andaluz del Patrimonio Historico). He was accompanied by Jose Peral Lopez, a former US/ICOMOS intern from Seville who was part of the 1997 Historic American Engineering Survey team to record the Mariscal Quicksilver Mine in Big Bend National Monument, Texas.They visited the Instituto Andaluz del Patrimonio Historico, where, Taylor writes, “the high quality and commitment of the Instituto to the protection and preservation of the rich cultural patrimony of Andalucia is impressive.”Examples included the computer cataloging system where archival, structural, moveable object information and site location information are folded together into one database for use by town planners, academics, historians, architectural conservators and others. The library holdings of the Instituto, and the extensive publications produced there, as well as their state-of-the-art conservation laboratories were inspiring.US/ICOMOS STUDY TOUR TO CUBAA delegation of 26 US/ICOMOS members led by Chair Ann Webster Smith visited Cuba from February 13 to 22 with a study tour organized jointly by US/ICOMOS and ICOMOS Cuba. The US/ICOMOS members represented a broad range of disciplines and many respected U.S. preservation institutions and universities. Their travel to Cuba was licensed by the United States Treasury Department. The purpose of the US/ICOMOS trip was to meet officials and professionals in Cuban preservation institutions in order to learn of their work and identify areas of common concern where U.S. and Cuban ICOMOS members could cooperate on behalf of the built heritage in both countries. Because of decades of strained diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba, the flow of information among preservationists in the two countries has been very limited in the past, relying mostly on second-hand information. Exchanges between Cuba and the U.S. continue to be strictly controlled and require lengthy formalities. In spite of the obstacles, the trip was ultimately successful because it was planned and conducted within the strictest cultural context, at all times guided by the ICOMOS global ideal of professional cooperation that forms a single preservation community, that cuts across ideological and political boundaries. ICOMOS’ commitment to mutual respect, and the shared commitment to preserve all cultural heritage, gained US/ICOMOS and ICOMOS Cuba the support necessary to make the trip happen. It ultimately forged deeper understanding, personal rapport and lasting friendships among ICOMOS members in both countries.Upon arriving in Havana from Cancun, Mexico, the US/ICOMOS delegation was met in Havana’s historic Hotel Inglaterra by a welcoming delegation of members of ICOMOS Cuba, under the leadership of President Emeritus, Dr. Marta Arjona and current ICOMOS Cuba President Isabel Rigol. On the following day, the US/ICOMOS delegation was again welcomed at a reception given by U.S. Interests Section Chief and Mrs. Michael Kozak at the former U.S. Embassy Residence outside Havana, to which all members of ICOMOS Cuba were also invited.The ambitious Island-long tour was carefully planned by Isabel Rigol. She also acted as guide, and a young ICOMOS Cuba member, Jorge Ramos, an advanced architecture student, acted as the official translator. As part of his thesis, Mr. Ramos is supervising the restoration of the Synagogue in Old Havana.During their travels in Cuba, the US/ICOMOS delegation was received by numerous preservation colleagues who head national and provincial heritage programs. The itinerary included Havana, Matanzas, Varadero, Cienfuegos, Trinidad, Camagüey, las Tunas, Bayamo and Santiago de Cuba. The candid exchanges at every stop highlighted in detail the preservation triumphs as well as the daunting challenges that still remain in preserving Cuba’s heritage, especially at a time of extreme economic hardship and the incipient rebirth of international tourism. Each of the expansive conversations was followed by guided visits to the island’s most important heritage sites where completed projects, works-in-progress and endangered heritage were explained in detail. Needless to say, US/ICOMOS cameras clicked away non-stop, bringing back approximately 12,000 still shots and about ninety hours of video footage documenting Cuba’s heritage sites and its other cultural manifestations.The enthusiasm and warmth of the Cuban people was eloquently matched by the US/ICOMOS members, who inquired relentlessly about the nature of the heritage sites, the details of preservation structures and future conservation plans. Of particular interest to them was the establishment of an autonomous preservation institution under the City Conservator or Historian in Trinidad, Camagüey and Santiago de Cuba, following the model of the one successfully established in Havana a few years ago under the direction of Havana Historian, Eusebio Leal Spengler. Under this model, the City Historian is given full control to negotiate contracts with foreign tourism investors for all development inside the historic district. In addition to the conservation and rehabilitation work accomplished under each tourism project, two per cent of the resulting gross dollar revenue is returned to the Historian’s office to be devoted to other preservation work on behalf of the local community and a variety of heritage programs. In this way, tourism development is brought under the direct control of those whose primary responsibility is the preservation of the city’s cultural values. The implementation of this new administrative concept was of particular interest to US/ICOMOS delegates in the World Heritage Town of Trinidad, where tourism appears to be on the threshold of a massive explosion, such as the one already being witnessed in Havana and Varadero.While the pace of the trip was relentless, enthusiasm never waned. This was made patent when, on the last day of the trip, exhausted US/ICOMOS members toured the San Juan Hill National Historic Site near Santiago in the darkness of night using flashlights to read the inscriptions and view the memorials to U.S., Cuban and Spanish soldiers. Perhaps they had been energized bythe glorious Caribbean sunset that they had just seen (and excessively photographed) from the World Heritage Site of the Fortress of San Pedro de la Roca, where their visit was guided by Omar Lopez, the Conservator of Santiago de Cuba.In order to disseminate observations and exchanges broadly upon their return, US/ICOMOS will issue a joint report with ICOMOS Cuba that will be made available to all ICOMOS members and the preservation community at large within the next few months. In order to ensure its completeness, each member of the US/ICOMOS delegation was charged with researching a particular topic or site in depth. While the report is not yet complete, some findings became overwhelmingly evident by the end of the trip:Cuba’s heritage is unusually rich as a result of several historic periods of tremendous prosperity and its geographic location as a New World crossroads of commerce and artistic trends.Unlike most cities elsewhere, much of the urban heritage is extant because during the past three decades of revolutionary government, they were spared from modern development when priorities were diverted to other sectors of the economy.The heritage institutional structure is well developed at both the national and local levels, with ample professional competence evident at all levels throughout the island. These professionals are well-trained, deeply committed to the preservation of their heritage and often work with a minimum of resources.In spite of the solid professional and institutional base, the challenge of preserving the country’s resources remains beyond immediate reach, placing many important sites in grave imminent danger.Because of the embargo imposed by the United States Congress on all trade and financial exchanges with Cuba by U.S. nationals, the range of cooperative actions between the two countries is extremely narrow, but does offer some potential for exploration, especially when such cooperation is identified as humanitarian and cultural support on behalf of Cuban ngo’s (non-governmental organizations). Another allowable area of support is that of professional information. This was explicitly requested by every group that US/ICOMOS met with, all of whom expressed a great need for professional and technical periodicals, books, and scientific research reports on conservation, as well as information about preservation programs/initiatives and newsletters from preservation organizations in the United States. When possible, multiple copies of the same publications are needed in order to disseminate information throughout provincial institutions and universities in the Island. All ICOMOS members in the United States and elsewhere in the world are urged to contribute to this effort by sending new or old preservation publications to ICOMOS Cuba. To find out how you can help, contact Gustavo Araoz at US/ICOMOS via fax 1-202-842-1861 or e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; or Raul Garcia at email@example.comGustavo F. Araoz, AIAExecutive DirectorPRESIDENT CLINTON’S 1999 BUDGET PROPOSALAfter decades of stagnant funding and deferred maintenance, money for conservation has been included in this year’s budget. If passed, this would represent the first Federal funding for bricks and mortar projects since 1975.In his State of the Union address, President Clinton proposed funding to save all types of endangered U.S. historic fabric, specifically mentioning the star-spangled banner, the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights as national treasures in urgent need of repair. Objects gathered by the Lewis and Clark exhibition, and the laboratory of Thomas Edison are also high on the list.Clinton’s 1998 budget proposal contains a $50 million increase for “Millennium grants” in the Historic Preservation Fund (HPF). Half of this would be directed to Federal sites; the other half earmarked for the states. With the new grant, total funding for preservation would be $90 or $100 million, more than twice last year’s $40 million portion of the HPF (see chart).Across the country, organizations are responding to the prospect of funding, by beginning to list and assess their priority projects. Eric Hertfelder, Executive Director of the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers says, “We need to establish which projects need funding first, so we will be ready if the appropriation is passed.”In the Washington, D.C. area, residents often mention sites like the Forest Glen Seminary in Silver Spring, an eclectic 19th-century campus that features many historic building styles and a much-loved Chinese pagoda in the center. Officially owned by the army (Walter Reade Army Medical Center), local residents call it a clear case of demolition by neglect.At press time, it was not clear exactly how the Millennium Fund would be administered, but in their in-house newsletter, The Department of the Interior described some of the evolving details of the proposal. If passed, they say, the Millennium grant would fund physical restoration projects for documents, sites, structures and other objects of national significance. Half of the money would go to Federal agencies; the other 25 million to states, tribes and territories who can match government grants with money from private sources on a 60/40 Federal/non-Federal basis (with the exception of tribes).The Department has also said they would accept proposals to preserve museum objects and artifacts, national historic landmarks, national historic districts, and whole collections. They would also consider projects to make collections available to the public through exhibits, publications, digitization and release on the world wide web or cd-rom.Hertfelder and Preservation Action’s Nellie Longsworth were both planning to testify in Congress on March 3rd, and were both querying their constituencies to determine what are their priority landmarks.The National Trust has also announced that they will be heading a public education campaign on behalf of the proposal. This will probably include a national leader to spearhead the campaign, someone who can do the kind of job that Lee Iacocca did for the Statue of Liberty.It is not surprising that the Trust will have a role in promoting this program, as Trust President Richard Moe’s influence with the Clinton administration is generally credited with this new initiative. Pundits say they will be looking to Moe for more direction.As always, the prospects for passage of this initiative are unclear, as Congress can be expected to push for tax cuts. But proponents say that even the coldest tax-cutters must be moved by the deterioration of the “landmarks of democracy.”Longsworth says the good news is that “this program has ignited the grass roots, and that,” she says, “is certainly more important than corporate support.”COSTELLO REPORTS ON ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE MEETING IN SRI LANKAThe ICOMOS International Committee on Archaeological Heritage Management (ICAHM) met in Sigiriya, Sri Lanka, November 6-7, 1997. Julia Costello attended the meeting for US/ICOMOS, representing Hester Davis, Chair of the US/ICOMOS Committee on Archaeological Heritage Management.Here are some of the Highlights of her Report:Costello reports “that some delegates were dissuaded from attending the meeting by recent incidents of internal unrest in Sri Lanka. The stalwart few who made it, however, accomplished a great deal, stayed at an extraordinarily lovely hotel, and were treated to moonlight and daylight tours of the breathtaking World Heritage site of Sigiriya.Those who were able to attend included S.U. Deraniyagala, ICAHM representative from Sri Lanka; Xavier Dupre Raventos, ICAHM representative from Spain; ICOMOS President Roland Silva, and ICAHM Secretary Gamini Wijesuriya. Last-minute apologies were received from the U.K., New Zealand, Germany, Denmark, and Japan.As the first order of business, delegates elected a new Chair: Professor Senake Bandaranayake of Sri Lanka. Gamini Wijesuriya of Sri Lanka continues as Secretary.”Costello wrote that “the most important decision of the meeting was to update the Recommendations on International Principles for Archaeological Excavations, adopted by the General Assembly of UNESCO in New Delhi in 1956 (the Delhi Recommendations). This farsighted document thoughtfully addresses such questions as patrimony, foreign excavators, heritage interests of both nationals and the world community, “banking” archaeological sites, publication responsibilities, access to research data, trade in antiquities, and excavations in occupied territories. As well as they have served, however, 40 years have passed since these Recommendations were written and revisions will make them more timely and relevant. An international committee is now being formulated to produce the new document. The resulting draft will first be submitted to ICAHM for approval and then forwarded to ICOMOS for adoption as a Charter. ICOMOS could then forward this document to UNESCO, as a replacement for the Delhi Recommendations.It was also decided that the ICAHM charter will reach a wider audience if it is translated into languages in addition to English and French (current versions). Commitments were made by the delegates present to effect translations into Spanish and Russian, the two other official languages of ICOMOS. A commitment was also made to document the history of ICAHM, including its objectives, activities, and achievements, and to make this information available to the National Committees. A policy to update and reissue the ICAHM Directory every 6 years was established and the current revision is now underway. Other topics being pursued are the addition of an ICAHM page to the forthcoming ICOMOS web site and the development of an ICAHM brochure.”At the previous meeting in Sophia, 1996, invitations were issued to all ICOMOS National Committees to nominate delegates to ICAHM. The following names have been received:David Breeze (UK); Susan Bulmer (New Zealand); Hester Davis (USA); Nelly Garcia (Mexico); Dimitris Konstantinos (Greece); Carsten U. Larsen (Denmark); Makato Motonaka (Observer Japan); Constant Noanti (Benin); Xavier Dupré Raventos (Spain); Prof. H. Schmidt (Germany); Prof. Yoshiyuki Ushikawa (Japan).Countries not listed with a representative are encouraged to forward a name.The next meeting of ICAHM will probably be held in Cape Town, South Africa in conjunction with the World Archaeological Congress, which will be held January 10-14, 1999. Following that meeting, a location is being sought for a possible meeting in the United States.Julia G. Costello is a cultural resource specialist whose firm, Foothill Resources, Ltd is in Mokelumne Hill, California. Her transportation to Sri Lanka was funded by a grant from the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, and her stay was sponsored by the Sri Lanka government.FIRST DRAFT OF THE ICOMOS STRATEGIC PLANThe ICOMOS Secretariat in Paris is circulating a draft of the Strategic Plan that was developed during the November 1997 Bureau and Executive Committee meetings in Rabat, Morocco. ICOMOS National Committees have been asked to review it and to forward their suggestions for priorities and strategies so they can be attached to the objectives that have been proposed. These proposals will be considered at the Executive Committee meeting of ICOMOS in Paris this March, and if accepted, incorporated into the Strategic Plan for policy and program development and action. The draft will be sent to all national committees.The draft incorporates this Mission Statement: ICOMOS is the international non-governmental organization of professionals, practitioners, institutions and other bodies committed to and supporting the preservation/conservation of the world’s heritage.Through its membership and the exchange of information and expertise, ICOMOS forms an international network that defines, improves and promotes conservation and preservation principles, standards, research, responsible practice and innovation.In the draft, ICOMOS’ Objectives are set forth under six headings:ICOMOS AS A LEADERAs a LEADER, ICOMOS “defines and refines conservation philosophy, standards and practice” (Charters and Recommendations, regular review and monitoring and a Code of Ethics); “provides a relevant forum among international and national conservation bodies and practitioners for examining conservation issues” (National and International Scientific Committees, Symposia and the General Assembly, publications); “promotes the exchange of expertise and information in order tostimulate and extend the state-of-the-art in conservation” (National and International Scientific Committees, Symposia and the General Assembly, Publications, Internet); and “seeks to establish partnerships with other professional bodies and institutions.”ICOMOS AS A FORUMAs a FORUM, ICOMOS “offers its members an international perspective on preservation practice and issues and involvement in their examination and resolution (National Committees and ISC’s as well as Blue Shield and other partnerships and initiatives); “develops and maintains information exchange networks including symposia, publications and Internet for preservation/conservation professionals (General Assemblies, regional and national symposia, ICOMOS Journal; newsletters and other publications, web pages for ISCs and the National committees); “promotes through its membership participation in and belonging to a dynamic international community of professionals and experts in the field of conservation”; and “provides a framework for organizing the professions involved in the conservation/preservation of cultural heritage.”ICOMOS AS AN EXPERT ADVISORAs an EXPERT ADVISOR, ICOMOS “mobilizes expertise through its membership, its partnerships and its National and International Committees, providing a unique perspective on conservation/preservation issues”; as well as assisting “governments and institutions in the consideration of preservation programs and issues” (missions, symposia and program development and Blue Shield); “examines issues relating to the World Heritage Convention” (nominations, monitoring and specific topics such as authenticity, cultural landscapes and corridors or routes); and “informs and influences decision makers.”ICOMOS AS A FORCE FOR EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATIONThe draft plan calls on ICOMOS to serve as A FORCE FOR EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION by promoting “education and training as a means to improve the quality of professional practice and standards ” (professional standards, academic training programs, training programs and development, charters and guidelines and continuing education for practitioners); and by developing and implementing “a communications and publications program to serve a variety of needs and membership requirements” (the ICOMOS Journal and Newsletter, the “20 Books,” the proceedings of symposia and meetings, web pages and by other new technologies, and the Documentation Centre).ICOMOS AS AN ADVOCATEAs an ADVOCATE, ICOMOS “encourages and promotes public appreciation and involvement in heritage conservation/preservation”, and “disseminates information concerning the economic, social and environmental benefits of conservation.”ICOMOS AS A VIABLE ORGANIZATIONThe draft plan expects ICOMOS to be a VIABLE ORGANIZATION that “develops, maintains and supports a broad-based global membership in the disciplines of conservation and preservation” (membership directory and database for missions and membership services and privileges); “encourages open membership from a variety of professional disciplines, and provides opportunities for participation by young professionals” (membership development programs, student membership and exchange programs and the promotion and development of institutional memberships); and “seeks to ensure financial stability, effective management and administration” (supporters, sponsors and corporate members, governmental and institutional members, commitment by National and International Committees, a marketing program, a fund raising program and a balanced budget).Participants in the Strategic Plan Committee meeting at Rabat included ICOMOS President Roland Silva (Sri Lanka); Secretary General Jean-Louis Luxen (Belgium); and four Vice Presidents: Esteban Prieto (Dominican Republic), Christiane Schmuckle-Mollard (France), Joseph Phares (Lebanon), and Ann Webster Smith (USA). Also attending were Advisory Committee Chairman Carmen Anon Feliu (Spain), and two Executive Committee members: Dinu Bumbaru (Canada) and Sheridan Burke (Australia). The drafting committee included Smith as chairman, Burke, and Bumbaru.WORLD BANK HOLDS MEETING ON A PROPOSED NETWORK FOR CULTURAL HERITAGEWorld Bank officials met with international ICOMOS Vice President Ann Webster Smith and representatives from 20 other cultural heritage organizations in Washington, D.C. in January. They discussed a Bank proposal for the establishment of an informal network of people working on the cultural heritage issues in developing countries. This meeting followed 1996 and 1997 Bank meetings convened for informal discussions about the role of cultural heritage interests including those affecting cultural tourism and historic cities.When it called the meeting, the Bank announced that one of its objectives was the “thoughtful attention to cultural heritage [as] a requisite for meaningful sustainable [economic and social] development that will improve economic well-being and quality of life.”In a draft of a statement of objectives for the network, The Bank proposed the following wording:”Development programs place great emphasis on the socio-economic impacts of present and near term actions and often overlook the benefit of preserving and nurturing cultural achievements for the future. Yet, an emerging viewpoint on what makes economic and social gains sustainable recognizes that cultural imperatives are often development imperatives.”The statement continued: “Cultural heritage, carefully preserved and protected, can contribute to economic growth in developing countries, meeting the needs and interests of poor communities and the broader society. Heritage can be a development ‘asset’ a form of cultural capital that can provide employment, generate income, and mobilize communities to alleviate poverty. Economic and social development can put cultural capital at risk, but it can also create opportunities for increasing that capital.Increasing appreciation for cultural heritage by means of local research, education, documentation and conservation are key ingredients in increasing and maintaining cultural capital and supporting those local institutions that enhance the process of development.”A Statement from Ann Webster SmithIn a statement for ICOMOS, Vice President Smith welcomed the Bank’s initiative in reaffirming three decades of work by an existing network of governmental and non-governmental organizations that collaborate closely on efforts to protect and preserve the cultural heritage.When asked about ICOMOS’ possible contributions to a cultural heritage network, she mentioned the recently circulated ICOMOS Draft Strategic Plan. The Plan (which is included on p.5) sets forth ICOMOS’ vision of its role — to be a leader in the definition of conservation philosophy, standards and practice; an international forum for preservation practices and issues; an adviser to governments and institutions; an advocate for the public recognition of the educational, economic and social benefits of conservation, and an advocate for official government participation in preservation issues.Smith also said that “Effective communication is the key to successful operations in this field as in others.” She said e-mail facilities and access to information on the world-wide web was an important first step for developing countries, as it is a step, “on which any cultural heritage network, partnership or operations must depend.”World Bank officials who participated in the meeting, included: Ismail Serageldin, Michael Cohen, Maritta Koch-Werner, Gloria Davis and Stephen Stern.Participating organizations included: The World Bank; ICOMOS; UNESCO’s Division of Cultural Heritage; UNESCO’s World Heritage Centre; the International Council of Museums (ICOM); The Getty Conservation Institute; The Getty Research Institute; The Getty Information Institute; ICCROM; the World Monuments Fund; The Aga Khan Trust for Culture; the Inter-American Development Bank; The American Express Foundation; the Council of Europe; the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization; the American Association of Museums; the Samuel H. Kress Foundation; the Smithsonian Institution; Fondo Nacional de las Artes; the Business Committee for the Arts; the Vitae Foundation; the Organization of American States; USIA; Harvard University; The Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage and The Italian Embassy.Immediately following the meeting, ICOM announced the establishment of an automated internet e-mail discussion and information-exchange system. Partners in the exchange would include organizations and individuals who might contribute to the work of the new network on cultural heritage and development. The network plans to distribute a shared diary of meetings and other events relevant to its interests.CALL FOR VOLUNTEERS: CEMETERY DOCUMENTATION IN SURINAME, SOUTH AMERICAIn a continued effort to document and research the synagogue remains and cemeteries of Jodensavanne, Suriname, South America, Rachel Frankel, Architect, will lead an expedition to survey and document two of Jodensavanne’s three cemeteries, one dating back to the 17th century laid with tombstones engraved with Hebrew and Portuguese inscriptions and illustrative images. The second cemetery is marked by unusual wooden tombs with African and Christian symbols and Dutch language inscriptions.The expedition will take place the fist two weeks of August 1998. There will be a few days spent in Suriname’s historic capital city, Paramaribo, and about one week spent at Jodensavanne which is remotely located in the rain forest. At Jodensavanne, simple accommodations will be provided by the inhabitants of the small neighboring AmerIndian settlement. Jodensavanne, once a sugar plantation community, was settled by Sephardic Jews and enslaved West Africans in the 1600’s. Caribbean Volunteer Expeditions (CVE), a nonprofit organization recruiting volunteers from the U.S. and Canada to work on preservation projects throughout the Caribbean, will once again join Rachel Frankel. In 1997, CVE helped produce an architectural survey of the remains of Jodensavanne’s synagogue of 1685. This year’s expedition will also include a professional photographer and a scholar of Hebrew and Sephardic studies. STINASU, a semi-governmental Suriname foundation for nature and heritage preservation, will host the expedition as they did in prior years. CVE volunteers pay for their own airfare, lodging and meals, estimated at roughly $1,500. Additionally, CVE volunteers are responsible for their own medical precautions. Volunteers will assist in creating a plan of the cemetery grounds and inventorying, photographing, transcribing and translating the tombstones of the cemeteries. Individuals interested in volunteering should contact: Caribbean Volunteer Expeditions, Box 388, Corning, N.Y. 14830. CVE web site: http://members.aol.com/ahershcve. Rachel Frankel can also be contacted: 10 Park Avenue, New York City, 10016; tel: 212-683-1067; fax: 212-683-6150; e-mail: RachelArch@aol.com EARTH ARCHITECTURE CENTER INTERNATIONALInformation Sheetby Paul McHenryThe Earth Architecture Center International (EACI) was created to provide a platform from which to collect and distribute information on earth building and to encourage its use throughout the world.1. Assemble and maintain a source of technical, reference information. An annotated bibliography with more than 1300 references and key work list is currently available. The bibliographic entry form has fields that include: title, author, publisher, date, description, key words and library location. This information is available in electronic form in Microsoft WORKS for WINDOWS data base. The data base is for sale on disc or can be accessed free of charge with word search capability on the internet. It will be expanded and updated as new entries are added, and existing entries corrected. Any user is urged to send new references or corrections to this bibliography by corresponding with EACI. See our internet home page: http://www.unm.edu/~eaci2. If a full text of a particular reference is requested, an attempt will be made to locate the item and a cost quoted. The work may be in original published form, a xerographic reproduction, or reproduced in an electronic medium, as available. International copyright conventions will be observed.Customized searches can be made for lists of references on a specific subject at a nominal cost. While the bibliographic citations may not contain specific subject information, they offer the researcher a source, which can be pursued through regular library channels (e.g., interlibrary loan), or our own research staff. We will do customized research on specific subject matter to provide information requested.3. The proceedings of a number of international conferences on earth building are being assembled. These conferences contain reports that deal with many varied aspects of earthen building, and are seldom seen by other than conference members. These papers contain some of the most valuable resources available. Our publication will include the conference name, date, a list of subject titles on which papers were presented, author’s name and affiliation, and an abstract. Copies of the full text of any paper may be available; write for availability and cost.4. EACI will undertake customized research or educational programs related to your needs and requests. These can include but need not be limited to earth building, architecture, engineering, materials, labor, technology, and economic feasibility anywhere in the world. The EACI Advisory Board includes professionals that are outstanding in various fields and are available for consultation. A list will be supplied at your request.5. EACI will organize and conduct seminars, workshops and training sessions, adapted to your needs and requirements. Planning and construction of full size or scale models for demonstration will be undertaken on request. Such projects can be undertaken in the United States or abroad, as might be necessary and desirable.6. EACI is assembling and will maintain an international roster of organizations and individuals active or interested in earth building. If you or your colleagues would like to be included in this roster, please advise. This list is being constantly updated.7. EACI maintains a photo file of more than 10,000 photos, covering all aspects of earth building architecture and technology from many parts of the world. The bulk of the collection is in 35mm color slide form, with some black and white and color prints.A system is underway for the digitization of photo images with an accompanying date base including keywords and annotation information, for research and additional uses. This resource may ultimately be available worldwide through the internet.8. Future plans call for creation and production of film and video educational programs on earth building. Special programs can be tailored or created to your needs.EACI is a self-supporting organization, relying on donations, book sales, grants and contract research. All Directors, Board of Directors, Advisory Board Members, and staff at this time are unpaid volunteers. Your encouragement, support and assistance are requested. Please advise how we may serve you and support your efforts. plantation community, was settled by Sephardic Jews and enslaved West Africans in the 1600’s.Caribbean Volunteer Expeditions (CVE), a nonprofit organization recruiting volunteers from the U.S. and Canada to work on preservation projects throughout the Caribbean, will once again join Rachel Frankel. In 1997, CVE helped produce an architectural survey of the remains of Jodensavanne’s synagogue of 1685. This year’s expedition will also include a professional photographer and a scholar of Hebrew and Sephardic studies. STINASU, a semi-governmental Suriname foundation for nature and heritage preservation, will host the expedition as they did in prior years. CVE volunteers pay for their own airfare, lodging and meals, estimated at roughly $1,500. Additionally, CVE volunteers are responsible for their own medical precautions.Volunteers will assist in creating a plan of the cemetery grounds and inventorying, photographing, transcribing and translating the tombstones of the cemeteries. Individuals interested in volunteering should contact: Caribbean Volunteer Expeditions, Box 388, Corning, N.Y. 14830. CVE web site: http://members.aol.com/ahershcve.Rachel Frankel can also be contacted: 10 Park Avenue, New York City, 10016; tel: 212-683-1067; fax: 212-683-6150; e-mail: RachelArch@aol.comNOTES FROM UNESCO PRESSThreats to the Heritage of AfghanistanDuring a visit to Pakistan, UNESCO Director-General Federico Mayor urged the people of Afghanistan to safeguard their cultural heritage following reports that several bombing raids have been carried out in the Bamiyan area. Recently, a bomb fell about 10 meters from the head of the large Bamiyan Buddha, making a crater in the cliff. Visitors to the site reported that the bomb damaged the Buddha itself, widening a crack in the back of its head. The Buddhas of Bamiyan — the “marvellous valley” described by the Chinese pilgrim Fa Hsien in 400 AD — are surrounded by mine fields, while the monk’s caves serve as bivouacs or arms stores for warring mujaheddins. Threats have been issued against the sacred Buddhist monuments themselves.Gorée Memorial in SenegalThe international architectural competition organized by Senegal for the Goree Memorial, a monument to be built in memory of the victims of the slave trade, has been won by Italian architect Ottavio Di Blasi. He was selected by a jury that met in Dakar under the chairmanship of Harry G. Robinson III, vice-president of Howard University, in Washington, D.C. He represented UNESCO Director-General Federico Mayor.The memorial is to be built on the western Corniche of Dakar, as a symbol of tolerance and inter-cultural dialogue. A 14-member international commission has been set up by UNESCO to ensure the international promotion of the project and is now focussed on a global fund raising campaign for its construction. Nine hundred entries were submitted by 290 competitors from 66 countries.International Appeal to Safeguard MozambiqueUNESCO has launched an international appeal to safeguard the Island of Mozambique, and inaugurated a trust fund to implement the “Agenda for the Sustainable Development and Integral Conservation of Mozambique”. The island, which was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1991, was a strategic port of call on the route to India, major slave market and former administrative capital of Mozambique. The island’s architecture is unique, a melange of local traditions with Portuguese, Indian and Arabic influences.To revive the island’s development, UNESCO and the national government will be establishing a Regional Craft Centre and a Youth Education and Training Centre.The trust fund was created with an initial deposit of US$ 300,000, and a subsequent contribution of US$ 300,000 has been made by the UNDP. In addition, the government of Finland has provided an associate architect for UNESCO’s World Heritage Center. The cost of the island’s development program is about US$ 11 million.TRAINING, PUBLICATIONS, CALENDARAdobe PreservationP.G. Henry, the internationally renowned expert on adobe construction and preservation will lead two three-day workshops on adobe preservation in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the weeks of June 8 and August 10. Information: 505-345-2613.ConservationVenice, Italy: The European Centre of Venice for the Skills of Architectural Heritage Conservation is offering two types of courses: “Intensive Specializing and Advanced Courses” and “Mastro Courses” in the Conservation of the Architectural Heritage. Intensive courses are two-week sessions, held from mid-February to mid-September, in the following areas: conservation of wall paintings, conservation of stone, marmorino, fresco, wrought iron, forging tools, forging ornaments, embossing, gilding, woodgraining and marbling, lacquering, wood carving, marquetry, marbled stucco, stucco decoration, casting, copying stone sculpture, technical drawing, architectural ornaments, building survey. These courses are for craftsmen with a good knowledge of the fundamental techniques of the craft, corresponding to at least two years practical, manual experience in the same or related crafts. Mastro courses are for craftsmen who have completed either an apprenticeship training of at least three years with practical experience in conservation, or a university education, in a technical field or the arts, and at least three years professional practice and proved manual capability. Courses include theory and practical work in one of five different areas: stone, metals, stucco and plaster, wall paintings, wood. One semester course from Sept. 21 to Dec. 18, 1998.For course brochure and applications: Al Direttore del Centro Europeo di Venezia per i Mestieri della Conservazione del Patrimonio Architettonico, Isola di San Servolo, Casella Postale 676, 30100 Venizia, Italy, tel: 39-41-526-85-46 or526-85-47; fax: 39-41-276-02-11.CALL FOR PAPERSRISK ANALYSIS ’98, an international conference on The analysis and management of risk and the mitigation of hazards, including computer simulation in Risk Analysis and Hazard Mitigation will be held in Valencia, Spain, 6-8 October, 1998. It is being organized by the Wessex Institute of Technology in U.K. Papers are invited for inclusion in a session on Building Conservation and publication for world distribution in the Conference Proceedings. A session open to more general papers in the area of building conservation technology and practice is also planned for the Conference. Information: (http://www.wessex.ac.uk)Abstracts should be one page and sent by e-mail as an attached file readable in Microsoft Word 6.0 (or as text in the message block), together with your name, address, telephone, fax, and e-mail address. They should be sent as soon as possible to: Paula@wessex.ac.uk Address: Risk Analysis 98, Wessex Institute of Technology, Ashurst Lodge, Ashurst, Southampton, SO40 7AA, UK; Tel: 44-1703-293223; Fax: 44-1703-292853.CALENDARMay 19-21, 1998. 1st International Scientific Congress, Tourism and Culture for Sustainable Development, Athens, Greece, organized by the National Technical University of Athens and the Greek Committee of ICOMOS. The congress will be held every three years, to examine, evaluate and redefine the contemporary tourism and cultural product within the framework of sustainable development. Members of the academic community, members of international and national organizations dealing with tourism and culture and practitioners are all invited to participate and contribute to the Congress by presenting their scientific, technical or technological research and ideas.Contact: National Technical University of Athens, Department of Geography and Regional Planning, ATTN: Mr. D. Papakonstantinou, 9 Iroon Polytechniou str., 157 80 Zografou Campus, Athens, Greece, tel: 30-1-7722610 or 7722758; fax: 7722748; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgJune 1-7, 1998. Washington, D.C.: 26th A.I.C. Annual Meeting, Disaster Preparedness, Response and Recovery, which will be held in Arlington, Virginia. The meeting will bring together a broad audience of conservators, museum professionals and organizations such as FEMA, the American Red Cross, Department of Defense, insurance providers, fire departments and companies providing disaster response services.There will be two day-long sessions on Preparedness and Response, followed by specialty group sessions that will continue with the theme of Recovery — the treatment of cultural materials long after a disaster event. The meeting will include workshops, poster sessions and additional tours.Contact: AIC, 1717 K Street, NW, Suite 301, Washington, DC 20006, Tel: 202-452-9545; Fax: 202-452-9328.VOLUNTEER SUPPORTUS/ICOMOS is grateful for the invaluable contributions of several dedicated volunteers: Moya B. King, Svetlana Popovic and Jody CabezasUS/ICOMOS BOARD OF TRUSTEESOfficers: Ann Webster Smith, Chair; Robert Wilburn, Vice Chair; Roy E. Graham, FAIA, Secretary; Arlene Fleming, Treasurer. Members: Sarah S. Boasberg, Adele Chatfield-Taylor, William S. Colburn, Henry Hoffstot, John T. Joyce, James P. Kiernan, Norman L. Koonce, FAIA, R. Randolph Langenbach, Spencer Leineweber, AIA, Margaret G.H. Mac Lean, Richard Pieper, Constance W. Ramirez, Peter H. Stott, Thomas Schmidt, Michael R. TaylorEx officio: Robert P. Bergman, American Association of Museums; David Roccosalva, American Institute of Architects; Darwina L. Neal, American Society of Landscape Architects; Mark Meister, Archaeological Institute of America; John C. Poppeliers, National Park Service; Peter Brink, National Trust for Historic Preservation; Francine C. Berkowitz, Smithsonian Institution; Tobi Brimsek, Society for American Archaeology; Maria P. Kouroupas, USIA; Pauline Saliga, Society of Architectural Historians; Elliott Carroll, past ICOMOS Vice President; John M. Fowler, immediate past ChairmanICOMOS OFFICERSAnn Webster Smith, ICOMOS Vice President; Hisashi B. Sugaya, Chair, ICOMOS International Committee on Cultural TourismUS/ICOMOS SPECIALIZED COMMITTEE CHAIRSHester A. Davis, Archaeological Heritage Management; A. Elena Charola and Blaine Cliver, Brick Masonry and Ceramics; Hugh C. Miller, FAIA, Cultural Tourism; Maribel Beas, Earthen Architecture; Ronald Lee Fleming and Raul Garcia, Historic Towns; Charles Birnbaum and Robert Page, Historic Landscapes; Stephen N. Dennis, Legislation; Roy Eugene Graham, Training; William Chapman, Vernacular Architecture; Hiroshi Daifuku, Wood.US/ICOMOS STAFFGustavo F. Araoz, AIA, Executive Director; Ellen M. Delage, Program Director;Accounting: Nonprofit Management ServicesUS/ICOMOS FELLOWS1983: Ernest A. Connally, Hiroshi Daifuku, Robert R. Garvey, Jr. †, Richard H. Howland, Robert Thayer †.1984: J. O. Brew †, Carl Feiss, FAIA, James Marston Fitch, Frederick Gutheim †.1985: Eduard F. Sekler.1986: Barclay Gibbs Jones, Robert E. Stipe.1987: William J. Murtagh, Paul N. Perrot, Ann Webster Smith.1988: Charles E. Peterson, FAIA.1989: Russell V. Keune, AIA, Terry B. Morton, Hon.AIA, W. Brown Morton III, Hon.AIA, John Poppeliers.1991: Robertson E. Collins, George Scheffer.1994: Elliott Carroll, FAIA, Hugh C. Miller, FAIA.1996 :Marvin Breckenridge Patterson, Mr. and Mrs. J. Bennett Johnston.CERTIFICATES OF SERVICE1991: Barbara Bowen, Randolph Kidder, Erin Muths.1992: Dorothy Carroll, M. Burton McVernon, Thomas Richards, Hiroshi Daifuku1993: Barbara Timken.ICOMOS INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEESArchaeological Heritage Management* Photogtammetry Cultural Tourism* Rock Art Economics of Conservation Stained Glass Earthen Structures* Stone Historic Gardens and Sites* Structures Historic Towns* Training* Inventories* Underwater Cultural Heritage Legislation* Vernacular Architecture* Wood** Corresponding US/ICOMOS National Specialized CommitteesICOMOS NATIONAL COMMITTEES AlgeriaAngolaArgentinaAustraliaAustriaBelgiumBeninBoliviaBrazilBulgariaBurkina FasoCameroonCanadaChiliChinaColombiaCosta RicaCroatiaCubaCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDominican Rep.EcuadorEgyptEstoniaEthiopiaFinlandFranceGabonGeorgiaGermany GhanaGreeceGuatemalaHaitiHondurasHungaryIndiaIndonesiaIrelandIsraelItalyIvory CoastJamaicaJapanJordanKorea, P.D.RLatviaLebanonLithuaniaLuxembourgMacedoniaMalawiMaliMaltaMauritaniaMexicoMoroccoNetherlandsNew ZealandNicaraguaNorwayPakistan PanamaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPolandPortugalRomaniaRussiaSalvadorSenegalSlovakiaSloveniaSouth AfricaSpainSri LankaSwedenSwitzerlandTanzaniaThailandTunisiaTurkeyUkraineUKUruguayUSAVenezuelaZaireZambiaZimbabwe US/ICOMOS MISSION STATEMENTUS/ICOMOS fosters heritage conservation and historic preservation at the national and international levels through education and training, international exchange of people and information, technical assistance, documentation, advocacy and other activities consistent with the goals of ICOMOS and through collaboration with other organizations.US/ICOMOS membership includes professionals, practitioners, supporters and organizations committed to the protection, preservation and conservation of the world’s cultural heritage. US/ICOMOS is the U.S. National Committee of the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), the international nongovernmental organization dedicated to the preservation and conservation of the world’s heritage.US/ICOMOS NEWSLETTERThe US/ICOMOS Newsletter is published by US/ICOMOS six times a year. Members are encouraged to submit articles, illustrations and editorial items for inclusion in the Newsletter. Contributors are solely responsible for the facts and opinions stated herein, and publication in this Newsletter does not constitute an official endorsement by US/ICOMOS.Please send submissions and any inquiries to the Editor, US/ICOMOS Newsletter, 401 F Street, NW, Room 331, Washington, DC 20001-2728.This newsletter has been financed in part with Federal funds from the National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. However, the contents and opinions do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of the Interior.