In this Issue
1997 US/ICOMOS International Summer Intern Program
By-Law changes to be voted at annual meeting
Consevation Efforts in Moravia
News of Members and Friends
ELLIS ISLAND: US/ICOMOS INTERN MAKES A DIFFERENCE
In September of 1990, when Americans cheered the restoration and reopening of Ellis Island, few realized that only a small part of New York’s grand immigration station had been saved. Last summer, the site was listed on The National Trust’s list of 11 most endangered properties.
Ironically, it is the most compelling part of Ellis Island’s history that is threatened — the 24 structures of the Public Health Hospital and Contagious Diseases Wards. This research and teaching campus was built between 1900-1937. Today, many of its buildings are near collapse.
At the Ellis Island hospital, immigrants too sick to be admitted into the U.S. were quarantined and studied by U.S. Public Health Service doctors. The campus they built for this purpose was innovative — rooms built with windows on three sides for extra ventilation; hallways built to contain the movement of diseased persons, small wards built to isolate the various diseases — one for measles, one for mumps, etc. It was also equipped with state of the art equipment, such as a mattress autoclave where whole beds were sterilized and an autopsy amphitheater where public health doctors could observe the dissection of corpses held in a fancy 8-cadaver refrigerator. The campus remains frozen in time — just as it was seen and used. It has not been touched since March 1, 1951, when the United States Public Health Service abandoned it.
There is new hope for this unusual site, however, thanks, in part, to the efforts of Jo Hibbert, a 28 year-old 1997 US/ICOMOS intern from Bristol, England.
Hibbert worked at New York Landmarks Conservancy last summer, helping to develop plans for a emergency stabilization project on the abandoned hospital buildings. As a result, the National Park Service will be able to go to Congress this January with a specific plan and some exact cost estimates gathered from the pilot project that evolved from the internship. New York Landmarks Conservancy began the project on October 27th.
The pilot stabilization project was done on a small laboratory building that is considered a representative sample of the conservation problems found on the site. It established precise cost estimates for stabilizing the entire south end of the island. New York Landmarks Conservancy was assisted in the pilot project by the National Parks Service, which owns the site, and by World Monuments Fund, which contributed funding from a grant they received from The Loews Foundation. Other collaborators include The Overbrook Foundation and the Joyce Mertz Gilmore Foundation, the National Trust for Historic Preservation, which provided grants for Hibbert’s internship, and numerous other concerned persons and agencies, such as The Municipal Art Society, Preservation New Jersey, and Congresswoman Nina Lowey from New York.
Roger Lang, Director of Community Programs at the Conservancy says, “The hospital complex is a pure lab on building deterioration. The neglect is total — nothing has been done to it for 46 years. The Public Health Service left without even closing the window. The good news is that the site is secure: there has been no vandalism.”
The main cause of the deterioration has been nature — exposure to extensive vegetative growth and the harsh weather conditions of the New York Harbor island. Trees poke out the roof tiles of ivy-covered brick buildings. Interior hallways are covered with mud and fallen plaster. Birds fly through, and lime stalactites stretch down from the ceilings. The buildings are not safe to open to the public.
Two N.Y. Landmarks Conservancy professionals were on the site this fall, tearing out rotten sills and directing the stabilization work. Lang is one, and Mark Weber, Director of Technical Services, is the other. They were Hibbert’s supervisors this summer.
Lang spoke about the proposal that the NPS will send to Congress this January. “What we’re after is relatively inexpensive,” he said, “durable Band-Aids that will last for 15 years with no maintenance — fixing gutters, keeping water out, doing roofing repairs, shoring and bracing, about $50K per building. For 30 buildings, we’re talking about $1.5 million instead of the $350 million that a total restoration like that of the main immigration building would cost. (That restoration cost $750/sq. foot). This is an emergency plan that would carry us through the next 15 years. We’d like to see restoration in 15 years.”
The project includes temporary measures to arrest deterioration — eliminating vegetative growth, replacing cracked roof tiles, sealing corroded copper gutters, boarding up broken windows, and consolidating stucco.
History of the Site
Ellis island officially opened January 1, 1892, when a 15-year-old Irish girl named Annie Moore entered the U.S. through the new immigration depot in New York Harbor. Another 1/2 million people followed Annie that year. By 1924, 12 million people had entered the country through the depot, each of them inspected by physicians of the U.S. Public Health Service.
Richard Wells, Director of Planning and Development at the Statue of Liberty National Monument and Ellis Island, says, “these buildings represent an important page in the history of medicine, a time when doctors were beginning to understand how disease spreads. The Hospital was built with three types of contagious disease wards, three levels of isolation and three security levels. There were six regular measles wards and corridors between the buildings to limit the movements of contagious persons.”
Health inspections were a part of Ellis Island from the beginning, as Federal laws passed in 1891 required the Marine Hospital Service (later the PHS) to medically inspect all prospective immigrants. The law specified that immigration officers should exclude from the U.S. “all idiots, insane persons, paupers, or persons likely to become public charges, persons suffering from a loathsome or dangerous contagious disease”, and criminals from the country.
More than 350 babies were born at the Ellis Island hospital, and more than three thousand people died there. Their bodies were sent to potter’s fields in Staten Island and The Bronx.
In 1923, when immigration quota laws began, the island took on a detention role, and window bars and caged porch areas were added to the hospital. During the World Wars, it was used as a Merchant Marine Hospital.
Hibbert’s final internship report from the summer suggests a “Conserve as Found” philosophy, one that ensures that all that remains is protected from loss or injury and makes the area safe for public access. It does not include consolidating or strengthening the structure and does not involve restoration of the remaining fabric.
Hibbert wrote that if the correct repairs could be done immediately, the buildings could be brought to a condition that would allow the movement of the public through some of the structures, while still ensuring that the “special fragile character” of the buildings be preserved. She cited William Morris’ 1877 manifesto:
“To us the skill lies in mending them with the minimum loss of fabric and so of romance and authenticity.”
In her view, “The hospital is fascinating because of the way it was left — it’s been sort of mummified — you see it just as it was created and used.”
A US/ICOMOS Intern
In their application, New York Landmarks Conservancy requested an intern with experience in the concept and practice of stabilized ruins in their application. They wrote that they needed “an emergency plan that would allow the NPS to put off proposals for inappropriate development.”
Lang and Weber say they are grateful to US/ICOMOS for their help finding an intern. They credit Trustee Richard Pieper of Jan Pokorny, Associates, in New York City with first suggesting that they sponsor a US/ICOMOS intern. They also
credit US/ICOMOS Program Director Ellen Delage with finding just the right intern for the job.
“Ellen has an uncanny ability to match interns to programs,” Lang said, and NPS’s Richard Wells agrees. “Hibbert was just the right person for the job,” he said, “she brought a lot to the discussion of stabilizing buildings.”
Jo Hibbert had been working for English Heritage full-time, and pursuing a post-graduate degree in architecture at South Bank University part-time when she applied for the internship. She fit the bill in that she had had experience working on stabilization for English Heritage, and knowledge of several “Conserve as Found” projects in the U.K.
Landmarks Conservancy conservator Weber says “stabilized ruin” is a misleading term: “The hospital isn’t really a ruin, but it’s also not strong enough: We want to make the site visitable, not necessarily interpreted, but not dangerous.”
Lang adds, “We were trying to build a coalition, and we wanted to add US/ICOMOS and its international audience to the group. The complex is an important international site, as well as a domestic one.”
US/ICOMOS Program Director Delage says Hibbert’s internship is an example of how international interns are valuable assets to the organizations that employ them.
“Jo brought to her host country, the practices and knowledge of her own country — ruins stabilization — a common practice in the U.K. Our internships were designed to promote just this sort of international cooperation,” she said.
Different Conservation Philosophies
Hibbert says, preservation work in England is very different from that done in the states.
“In England, we have much less money available for restoration,” she says, “and we have to live by our limitations. There’s a 12th-century church every 5 or 10 miles or so in England, and there’s no money from government. We do stabilization partly because we don’t have the option of complete restoration. Twenty-five percent of architectural work we do involves the re-use of old buildings.”
Hibbert says there are other differences as well: “There are more young people in preservation in America, and people with different kinds of training. It’s refreshing. In England, it’s almost embarrassing to be a young person in preservation. People insist it’s a cop-out, a profession for older people who can’t do design.”
Hibbert also found very different attitudes toward building restoration in the U.S. The restoration of the Immigration building at Ellis Island is an example:
“There they built additional structures and did interventions in that restoration that we would never consider doing,” she said. “The amount of money available for restoration in the U.S. is frightening.”
Visions for The Future
All concerned parties are in agreement as to the short-term needs of the site, stabilization is imperative, but there are different ideas about the correct long-term plan for the complex.
The contents of the hospital rooms have been saved, and some supporters envision a total or partial restoration of the complex. Others would like to see the site preserved less meticulously. There is also disagreement as to whether the site, if and when it is temporarily stabilized, should be interpreted and opened to the public or simply left alone.
Richard Wells of the NPS says, “We believe it is imperative that the site be maintained as an intact campus. We will be continuing to look for partners to help us preserve and re-use it — both the buildings on island two, which were built by Boring and Tilton, Architects, of New York City in the French Renaissance style, and those of island three, which were done in an Arts and Crafts style. We would restore selected samples of the historic hospital interiors, and important features, perhaps the operating room, or morgue, for example.” He also added, “The NPS doesn’t have funds or staff available for interpretation of the complex at this time.”
In her September, 1997 report, Conservation Evaluation: The South Side of Ellis Island National Monument, Jo Hibbert outlined a vision for the future of the site, writing that the campus, once stabilized, should be interpreted as it is.
“There is no disputing the fact that the restoration of the immigration hall and other buildings on the north side has been a resounding success,” she wrote, ” but one could postulate that this now provides the perfect counterpoint to the experimental retention of the south side as a pure conservation exercise.”
Roger Lang of N.Y. Landmarks Conservancy, agrees:
“Its a challenging site,” he says, “and it’s hard to figure out how best to appreciate it, but it’s important not to scrub away all the sad stuff. The hospital as it is, evokes the American immigrant experience raw and uninterpreted. That’s the way I’d like it to stay.”
John Stubbs, Director of The World Monuments Fund, has a long history with the site. In 1980 he began writing the historic structure report on Ellis Island while working at Beyer, Blinder, Belle, Architects, in New York City. By 1983, when it was finished, the HSR totaled 11 volumes, about six of which were devoted to the hospital complex. At WMF, he began the mounting public awareness of the site by listing it on the 100 Most Endangered Properties List in 1996. And, the Conservancy pilot project that was done in October was done with funds contributed to the WMF by The Loews Foundation.
Stubbs believes strongly that the two schemes proposed for the site are not mutually exclusive and that both re-use and “preserving the sadness” can be accommodated by detailed planning sessions.
He said, “There is room for many themes to be presented at the complex, and room for many use types. As I see it, no one grand restoration scheme is feasible there. Two things are essential, however. The first is that there be mixed use at the site, and the other is that any scheme undertaken will have to proceed on an incremental basis, one project or building at a time. The campus was built incrementally and it will have to be saved in the way it was built. I believe the modest start that has been accomplished could prove to be significant. The key is to stay on top of it.”
Stubbs also believes the approach that is being used at Ellis island might have global implications.
He said, “The world is full of redundant institutional and industrial sites that have to be recycled, and this may be the beginning of a methodology that can be applied to other large-scale sites. Large scale complexes require special approaches, variety and mixed use.”
PROPOSED AMENDMENTS TO THE US/ICOMOS BYLAWS
At the request of the Chairman, Ann Webster Smith, a meeting of the ad hoc Governance Committee of US/ICOMOS was held on August 6, 1997 at the offices of John Fowler. In attendance were Ann Webster Smith, US/ICOMOS Chair; John Fowler, immediate past chair; Elliott Carroll, former Chair and former ICOMOS Vice President; and Joe Shull of the Washington, DC, law firm Venable, pro bono counsel to US/ICOMOS.
Discussions ensued as to the desirability of making certain changes to the Articles of Incorporation and the Bylaws of US/ICOMOS to reflect current practices and address certain perceived shortcomings. Points of discussion included: the maximum number of consecutive terms that may be served by Board members; whether the Board of Trustees could act other than through a formal meeting; and the need for passage of certain amendments to the Articles of Incorporation and the Bylaws, some merely technical and corrective, others substantive, such as the ability to remove Trustees, which is not addressed in the current Articles or Bylaws. The attached resolutions are intended to accomplish the following objectives:
1. Change the name of the corporation to the “United States National Committee of the International Council on Monuments and Sites” (The filed Articles have slightly different prepositions).
2. Clarify that the Board of Trustees is simply another name for the Board of Directors, and that the Executive Committee is a separate committee of the Board of Trustees (The filed Articles mention only a Board of Directors).
3. Legitimize the admission of local and regional organizations as well as national organizations as members of US/ICOMOS (The filed Articles mention only “national” organizations as being eligible for membership).
4. Change the title of “President” to “Executive Director” (The Bylaws call the senior staff person the “President” when the position is actually “Executive Director”).
5. Provide for the removal of a Trustee by the Board of Trustees when the Board determines such removal to be in the best interest of US/ICOMOS (The Bylaws do not presently address the removal of a Trustee).
The Board unanimously adopted these resolutions and recommended that they be submitted to a vote by the members at the next annual meeting (March 29, 1997). Notice will be mailed to the members 30-50 days before this vote.
ICOMOS GENERAL ASSEMBLY OCTOBER 1999
ICOMOS will open its triennial General Assembly October 17-24, 1999, in Mexico City with sections of the meeting then moving to Morelia, Guanajuato and Guadalajara, and the entire group joining together once more for elections and closing sessions in Guadalajara. The meeting will focus on ICOMOS International Scientific Committees and their work.
Registration fee for ICOMOS members will be $250 (until December 1998) and $400 after that time. Fees for accompanying persons will be about $250.
Because a large number of US/ICOMOS members are expected to attend the meeting, early registration is very important! Even so, ICOMOS Mexico may find it necessary to put a ceiling on the number of US/ICOMOS members who attend in order to ensure that representatives from other countries have an opportunity to participate as well.
US/ICOMOS members are urged to advise the Secretariat of their interest in attending as soon as possible and to respond and register quickly once registration materials become available from the ICOMOS-Mexico in 1998.
NEW TRUSTEE LOOKS BACK ON HIS 1992 INTERNSHIP
Troy Thompson, AIA, of Halstead Thompson Architects in Indianapolis, was a US/ICOMOS intern in Vilnius, Lithuania, in 1992. This year he became the first former US/ICOMOS intern to be elected a trustee of the organization. We asked him how it felt to be coming back as a trustee.
He answered, “Being a trustee of US/ICOMOS has more significance for me because of my history with the organization. It’s been fun for me to get reacquainted, and to be involved again.”
“The big thing for me is that the internship was a great experience that has helped me in my career. It feels good to be able to give something back, to help support the program and the people involved with it, and to see that others can have the same kind of experience.”
Thompson discussed his goals for US/ICOMOS, saying, “I hope the organization will become a higher profile, more active organization in the future, and that we’ll be producing more publications and internships, such as the mid-career exchanges we’re working on.”
In 1992, Thompson was a recent graduate of Ball State University headed to Lithuania. He was assigned a project that required him to produce a development proposal for the conservation, exposition and interpretation of the ruins of two gates of the fortified walls around the old town of Vilnius. He also became involved in proposing architectural solutions for the conservation of the ruins of The Palace of The Lower Castle of Vilnius.
Thompson says he considered that part of his role in Lithuania was to bring some odd-ball ideas with him, ideas that shook the Lithuanians up a bit. One such idea involved the ruins of The Palace of the Lower Castle. The Lithuanians wanted to reconstruct the old palace on top of the ruins from their collection of historic paintings. But looking carefully at the paintings, Thompson says, one could see discrepancies in the details of the building and a great deal of missing information. Thompson told them, “you can’t reconstruct if you don’t know what was there.”
“The Lithuanians wanted an archaeology museum,” he says, “so I suggested a modern structure with floors at the different levels of excavation. Then, as they found historic fragments, they could hang them in the building at the appropriate level.” Thompson chuckles, and says, “They didn’t do it.”
“Overall, one of the important parts of my program involved learning how to excavate in a living medieval city. We began by closing off one of the six routes into the city, and by educating the people why the gate was important and when the excavation would begin. We put up temporary interpretive panels, had open trenches, and left holes in surrounding walls for viewing.”
Thompson says the internship still plays a role in his work today: “Here, we have a shorter history and a shorter timeline, so we are used to seeing an object or a street as a snapshot of a time, and have less reason to debate which of the different periods is most important.”
In Lithuania, however, they have great rooms, facades and intact details from many periods all together in one site. They discuss the value of different periods, and there, a building may be restored with details from different centuries.
Troy says this experience has made him more aware of subtle differences in period, and that he spends time with his clients talking about changes over time. “This is becoming more of an issue in the U.S. as our country gets older,” he said.
Thompson says he enjoyed “working in both archaeology and architecture, as he did as an intern, and very much enjoys designing new buildings that relate to archaeology. He still works on an archaeological project in Turkey every summer through a Harvard and Cornell project.
One last way that the internship has affected his life is through friendships, Thompson says. During the summer of 1985, while he was working with a HABS (Historic American Buildings Survey) team in Annapolis, Maryland, Thompson roomed with Dietmar Opitz, a US/ICOMOS intern from Germany. Since then, the two friends have kept in touch, and after his honeymoon, Thompson and his wife visited with Opitz, who now owns his own firm in Darmstadt, Germany.
FINAL REPORTS OF US/ICOMOS INTERNS, PAST AND PRESENT:
What they did, what it meant to them
Ferdinand Obuoisa Addo
Ferdinand Addo, US/ICOMOS summer intern from Ghana, worked at The Savannah College of Art and Design during the summer of 1997, surveying and inventorying a late 19th-century building for re-use as executive offices for the college. This involved site measurements and condition assessments. He was also involved in the Savannah Development and Renewal Authority’s facade improvement program for Martin Luther King Boulevard, a main street in downtown Savannah.
In Savannah, Addo says, he “learned that preservation and restoration should not be regarded as some sentimental pursuit, but rather as an activity which, when well-coordinated and implemented, as is the case in Savannah, has real social and economic benefits.”
Raul E. Berrios-Ortiz
In 1997, Raul E. Berrios–Ortiz of Puerto Rico was a US/ICOMOS summer intern in Chile. One of the projects was the documentation of The Fallabella Palace and the Pedro de Valdivia Avenue, which opened in 1895. He also helped with a study of the incline elevators of Valparaiso, organizing computer files under the rubrics of each elevator, scanning pictures and reformatting computer drawings, and translating.
For Berrios-Ortiz, the memories of his internship begin with the opening meeting for the interns in Washington, D.C.
” Just meeting this incredible group of young people would have been an experience in and of itself, but it was only the beginning. . . . At first glance Santiago seemed a dense, homogenous city, but after long walks and careful observation, the city began to reveal incredibly ornamented buildings from the late 1800’s and early 1900’s in an advanced state of decay, next to modern constructions in every imaginable trend — the famous `shells’, or commercial buildings with spiral ramps, scattered along Providencia Avenue, a product of the psychedelic 70’s.
“The Chilean government grants some degree of protection to national monuments, but protection does not include financial or other incentives to the owners.
Buildings languish slowly in decay until its too expensive or impractical to restore them. But who could blame a Government that had to deal with a winter storm that affected more than 30,000 people, or an earthquake-prone area that has hundreds of patrimonial buildings. These are questions that I am scared to ask, but even more scared to answer, as Santiago is beginning to be coiled by satellite communities. I hope Chileans will find ways to protect their rich heritage for the enjoyment, pride and education of future generations.”
Michael Falser of Vienna, Austria, was based in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania last summer, working for HAER (Historic American Engineering Record). He worked as part of a team of four historians and five architects who began the documentation of 30 historic bridges in Pennsylvania.
Falser says, “Working intensively on bridges, taught me a great deal about engineering, and the way that bridges work. The project also introduced me to industrial archaeology.”
He writes “I was interested to learn about the simple beauty and the wide variety of the historic bridges of Pennsylvania. One was in a romantic valley next to an old mill, another along a lonely forest river. I discovered landscapes in Pennsylvania this summer, which were surprisingly similar to those in Austria!”
Falser says, “Working with an international team was sometimes difficult, and I found the American way of life very different, but solving these problems was an important part of the summer experience. I also learned a great deal about the organization I worked for. The most important thing I did this summer, was to meet interesting people from all over the world, all of whom were interested in historic preservation. A world exchange of students and young professionals is a great and unique experience. I want to thank US/ICOMOS for their great work, and for choosing me this summer.”
Sara Ann Lardinois
Sara Ann Lardinois, of San Francisco, California, spent the summer of 1997 recording 19th-century timber frame and stone buildings at Yildiz Technical University in Istanbul. In her final report, she wrote:
“When I received a telephone call informing me that I would be spending my summer in Istanbul, Turkey was a complete mystery to me. Stereotypes came to mind: the country where east meets west, the home of sultans and their harems, the land with the long and varied past. When I arrived a month later, I found that few of my preconceptions were true.
“One of the most important things I take away from this experience is an awareness of the tremendous need for international cooperation among preservationists. I discovered an amazing portion of the world’s heritage in Turkey, and the conservation of this heritage is much more than any one country can take on. Many people and countries need to contribute to the effort. both physical work and the sharing of knowledge and techniques. This summer, the spirit of international cooperation was instilled in me.”
Arthur Lapins, of Riga, Latvia, worked on HAER’s Allegheny National Forest Recording Project in the summer of 1997. His final report included this passage:
“The main principle of the program — acquiring the experience directly by doing the job — actually turned out to be a unique opportunity, and is probably the best way to learn anything. Definitely, it was much more effective than any kind of excursions or lectures with long explanations.”
Benjamin Briggs of High Point, North Carolina, was an US/ICOMOS Summer Intern assigned to the Australian Heritage Commission in 1995. In his final report he wrote:
“Through the Summer Internship, I learned of alternative preservation practices not fully realized in the U.S. The experience also furthered my knowledge of the world-wide preservation network, as well as the ICOMOS organization and its contribution to exchanges in knowledge and practice.
This exchange offers a chance to see alternative preservation practices at work. On a deeper level it is an opportunity to discover a new way of looking at my own preservation tools and efforts to reevaluate them. Not only are my preservation methods under scrutiny for improvement or refinement, but so is my way of viewing architecture, gardens, cities and landscapes.”
Martin Zembery, of Bratislava, Slovak Republic, was assigned to the Mid-Atlantic Regional Office of the National Park Service in the summer of 1997. In his final report, he wrote:
“My stay in the U.S.A. was very helpful for my understanding of the problems which are faced by preservation organizations in one of the wealthiest nations in the world. Interests of developers and a strong lobby at high political levels together with a cultural ignorance can be a serious threat to historic heritage. These problems have also been coming in my country during the last years.”
Jo Hibbert, of Bristol, England, worked for the New York Landmarks Conservancy in New York City in the summer of 1997 (see article on p.1 about Jo’s internship). In her final report, she wrote:
“I have worked in the Capitol of the world. Once in a lifetime experiences included working for a day with Bob Silman, engineer, and Russ Watsky, roofing expert; attending a lecture on the work done by Silman’s office on Frank Lloyd Wright buildings; attending a DOCOMOMO tour of the Lescaze house in Manhattan; working for a day at The Apollo Theatre in Harlem, where I touched the tree stump and made a very bad attempt at tap dancing on the stage; taking a walking tour of New York Landmarks Conservancy conservation projects in Brooklyn; and being the technical advisor to a loans officer, which meant I brushed up on my limited knowledge of brownstones.”
“My 1995 ICOMOS internship in Lithuania focused my career goals on international preservation. The unique opportunity to work with Lithuanian architects, engineers and conservators gave me a new respect for the professionals who deal with the universal challenges of preserving and protecting cultural heritage, while creatively adapting themselves to the realities of limited resources and funding. In my current position at the World Monuments Fund, I draw endlessly on the experiences and lessons of my months in Lithuania: those of international partnership, exchange and dedication to the preservation of cultural heritage.”
1997 US/ICOMOS INTERNS
Mr. Ferdinand Obuobisa ADDO
Background: Post-graduate diploma in architecture, University of Ghana, Legon; member, Ghana Institute of Architects
Savannah College of Art & Design: various rehabilitation & restoration projects
Mr. David John ANTHONE
New York City, USA
Background: degrees in architecture/art history, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; M.S. historic preservation, Columbia University; historical architect, National Park Service, Cultural Resource Center, NYC
Project: Conservation of historic buildings in Delhi (Fall 1997)
Mr. Orlando Jose ARAQUE-PEREZ
Background: architect; Councilor of the Aragua State Government
Project: Stabilization & Restoration of Historic Adobe Buildings, Cornerstones Community Partnerships, Santa Fe, New Mexico
Mr. Thomas Martin BEHRENS
Washington, DC, USA
Background: B.Arch., historic preservation concentration, Catholic University of America; Architect, Historic American Engineering Record Project: Recording of Diocletian’s Palace, Mediterranean Centre for the Built Heritage, Split, Croatia (Fall 1997)
Mr. Raul E. BERRIOS-ORTIZ
Bayamon, Puerto Rico, USA
Background: M.S. Architecture, University of Puerto Rico; architect, private firms
Project: Documentation of the incline-elevators of Valparaiso, CONPAL-Chile
Mr. Balazs BERTALAN
Background: Architect, Technical University of Budapest
Project: Sewell-Belmont House, Historic American Buildings Survey, Washington, DC
Ms. Jody Lynne BROWN
Rancho Cordova, California, USA
Background: M.A. Anthropology, Ph.D. candidate Anthropology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor; Senior Cultural Resource Specialist/Environmental Analyst, Harland Bartholomew & Assoc., Inc.
Project: Survey of Limekilns in Pembrokeshire; Data Base & Management Plan, Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Authority & The National Trust, UK
Ms. Slavica BUBIC
Background: Architect, University of Zagreb
Project: Historic Bridges Survey of Pennsylvania, Historic American Engineering Record, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
Mr. Darius CEPONIS
Background: Vilnius Technical University; Architect-restorer, Institute of Monument Restoration, Vilnius
Project: General Services Administration, Cultural & Environmental Programs Division
Ms. Jeanmaire DANI
New York City, USA
Background: B.A. art history; M.S. historic preservation/conservation, Columbia University
Project: Recording of Historic Cemeteries, Institute of Monuments, Banska Stiavnica Regional Office, Slovak Republic
Mr. Michael Stephan FALSER
Background: art history, University of Vienna; architecture, Technical University of Vienna
Project: Historic Bridges Survey of Pennsylvania, Historic American Engineering Record, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
Ms. Styliani (Stella) GEORGIADOU
Background: Architect, Faculty of Technology, Aristotle University
Project: The Calhoun Mansion, Fort Hill, Historic American Buildings Survey, Clemson, South Carolina
Mr. David Brett GOLE
Background: Architect, University of Queensland; graduate diploma, architecture, University of North London; registered architect in Queensland
Project: Continental Eagle Gin Company Recording Project, Historic American Engineering Record, Prattville, Alabama
Mr. Rastislav GROMNICA
Ruzomberok, SLOVAK REPUBLIC
Background: Architect, Slovak Technical University; Academia Istropolitana Bratislava, post-graduate degree in Architectural & Urban Heritage Conservation
Project: Applied Archaeology Center, National Park Service, GIS documentation of Lincoln & Jefferson Memorials, Washington, DC
Ms. Jo Elizabeth HIBBERT
Bristol, UNITED KINGDOM
Background: Architect, Sheffield University & post-graduate degree South Bank University; Architectural Assistant at English Heritage
Project: New York Landmarks Conservancy, Feasibility Study and Proposal for the Stabilization of Historic Structures, Ellis Island
Ms. Grachel Roxas JAVELLANA
Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA
Background: B.A., M.A., architectural history, University of Virginia, Charlottesville
Project: Institute of Monument Restoration, Vilnius, Lithuania
Ms. Lidia Koleta KLUPSZ
Background: M.L.A., Warsaw Agricultural University; Designer, Centre for the Preservation of Historic Landscapes, Warsaw
Project: Blue Ridge Parkway Recording Project, Historic American Engineering Record, Blowing Rock, North Carolina
Ms. Karin Elaine KOLNES
Athens, Georgia, USA
Background: B.S., agriculture/ornamental horticulture; M.L.A., University of Georgia
Project: Restoration of the Historic Park in Bialystok, Centre for the Preservation of Historic Landscapes, Warsaw
Mr. Leonid Victor KONDRASHEV
Background: Faculty of History, Moscow State Pedagogical University; Deputy Director, Centre for Archaeological Research, Department of State Control of Preservation and Use of Monuments of History & Culture
Project: Archaeological Management Plan for Historic Cemeteries, City Archaeologist’s Office, City of Boston, The Environment Department, Massachusetts
Mr. Arturs LAPINS
Background: Architect, Riga Technical University; architect in private firms
Project: Allegheny National Forest Recording Project, Historic American Engineering Record, Pennsylvania & West Virginia
Ms. Sara Ann LARDINOIS
San Francisco, California, USA
Background: B.Architecture, University of Notre Dame
Project: Recording of 19th-century Timber-frame and Stone Buildings, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul
Ms. Marcela LOPEZ de Santa Maria Vilches
Background: Architect, National University Andrés Bello, Santiago
Project: Editing & Project Support, Washington Office, Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record
Mr. Adam MAKSAY
Background: M.S. Civil Engineering; M.S. Monument Conservation & Restoration, Technical University of Budapest
Project: Quaker Meeting House Recording Project, Historic American Buildings Survey, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Ms. Sumetee PAHWA
New Delhi, INDIA
Background: Architect, School of Planning & Architecture, New Delhi
Project: List of Classified Structures, National Capital Support Center, NPS
Ms. Fani PAPAKANELLOPOULOU
Background: M.S. architecture, University of Athens
Project: Continental Eagle Gin Company Recording Project, Historic American Engineering Record, Prattville, Alabama
Mr. Jose PERAL Lopez
Background: Architect, University of Sevilla; M.S. candidate in architectural heritage conservation, Andaluz Institute of Historical Patrimony
Project: Mariscal Quicksilver Mine, Historic American Engineering Record, Big Bend National Park, Texas
Mr. Carlos ROSA Jimenez
Background: Architect, Ph.D. candidate, architectural conservation, University of Sevilla
Project: Blue Ridge Parkway Recording Project, Historic American Engineering Record, Vinton, Virginia
Mr. Oliver Leo SCHREIBER
Background: Architect-restorer, Technical University of Vienna
Project: Roebling Manufacturing Company, Historic American Engineering Record, Roebling, New Jersey
Ms. Nadide SECKIN
Background: Ph.D. Architecture, Istanbul Technical University; Architect for Ministry of Culture; Assistant Professor, Yildiz Technical University, Dept. of Restoration
Project: Conservation Assessment of Wetherburn’s Tavern, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation
Mr. David SINGER
Eugene, Oregon, USA
Background: B.S., construction engineering technology; M.S. candidate, historic preservation, University of Oregon
Project: Documentation and rehabilitation of historic structures, Cape Coast, Ghana
Ms. Viktoriya Julievna SINKEVYCH
Background: Architect, Ukrainian Academy of Arts, Architecture Faculty
Project: Kenworthy Hall Recording Project, Historic American Buildings Survey, Marion, Alabama
Ms. Michal Grissett TINCUP
Shaker Heights, Ohio, USA
Background: B.S., business administration, Samford University; M.L.A., University of Arizona
Project: Parramatta River Regional Park, Yaralla, Landscape Conservation Management Plan, National Parks & Wildlife Service, New South Wales, Australia
US/ICOMOS ANNOUNCES THE 1998 INTERNATIONAL SUMMER INTERN PROGRAM IN HISTORIC PRESERVATION
US/ICOMOS is seeking US-citizen graduate students or young professionals for paid internships in Australia, Austria, Croatia, Chile, France, Ghana, Great Britain, India, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Slovak Republic, Spain, Transylvania, Turkey and other countries in summer 1998. Participants work for public and private nonprofit historic preservation organizations and agencies, under the direction of professionals, for a period of three months. Internships in the past have required training in architecture, architectural history, landscape architecture, materials conservation, history, archaeology, interpretation, museum studies and cultural tourism.
In some countries with convertible currency, interns will be paid a stipend equivalent to $4,000 for the 12-week working internship. In other cases, the stipend is based on local wages. Exchanges offer partial or full travel grants. Applicants must be graduate students or young professionals with at minimum a bachelors degree (masters degree or near completion of masters preferred), 22 to 35 years old. Applicants should be able to demonstrate their qualifications in preservation through a combination of academic and work experience; the program is intended for those with a career commitment in the field. Speaking ability in the national language is desirable. Attendance at the orientation and final debriefing programs is obligatory.
Applications are due no later than March 9, 1998. For further information and to receive application forms, contact: Ellen Delage, Program Director, US/ICOMOS, 401 F Street NW, Room 331, Washington, DC 20001-2728, tel: 202/842-1862, fax: 202/842-1861.
Further information and the application form can also be found at the US/ICOMOS web site: www.icomos.org/usicomos
ICOMOS ADVISORY COMMITTEE
At its annual meeting in Rabat, Morocco, November 16-23, the ICOMOS Advisory Committee elected Michael Petzet, Chairman of ICOMOS Germany, to serve as its chairman for a three-year term. Susanna Sampaio, Chair of ICOMOS Brazil, was runner-up in the elections and will serve as vice chairman.
Dr. Petzet is an art historian and directs the Bavarian Office of Cultural Heritage in Munich. He has been a member of ICOMOS since 1975, served several terms as chairman of his national committee, and calls himself “the self-described world authority on “Mad King Ludwig of Bavaria” who, according to Dr. Petzet, “wasn’t really mad, you know.” Mrs. Sampaio is an historian and lawyer. She has been legal director of the Brazilian Museum for Sculpture and Director of Sao Paulo Heritage.
Two other candidates for the post were Ray Bondin (Malta) and Philip Ziba (Zambia).
The Advisory Committee chairman serves as an ex-officio member of the ICOMOS Bureau (made up of the eight ICOMOS officers) which plays an active role in the ICOMOS evaluations of cultural properties nominated for inclusion in the World Heritage List, and as an ex-officio member of the ICOMOS Executive Committee.
Drs. Petzet and Sampaio succeed Carmen Anon (Spain), former Chair of the ICOMOS Historic Gardens Committee, and Blanche Weicherding, Chair of ICOMOS Luxembourg.
US/ICOMOS MEMBER CONTRIBUTES TO WMF CONSERVATION EFFORT IN MORAVIA
The call from John Stubbs at the World Monuments Fund came unexpectedly in late June: Was I interested in serving as WMF’s technical representative on the evaluation of a project in the Czech Republic in August? After consulting with my wife, Merrill Hesch, (mother of our 18-month old twins), I was pleased to be able to say, Yes!
On the morning of August 1st, I found myself at the airport in Vienna, waiting for a ride across the border to Valtice, a small town in southern Moravia where the office of the Friends of the Czech Greenways would serve as our base of operations. My colleagues and close companions for the next week were Felicia Mayro, program administrator for the WMF; Luke Young and Moira Meenaghan, interns from the U.S. who would spend the next five weeks learning the intricacies of limestone cleaning and conservation; Lu and Tiree Chmelar, local project administrators who would serve as our ciceros to Czech customs and country-side; and a team of Czech restorers and conservation students.
Valtice, and the neighboring town of Lednice, flank a 20 thousand-acre greensward owned by the Lichtenstein family until the outbreak of World War II. Now owned by the Czech government, the gardens and castles of the two towns are being developed for tourism. The site was added to the World Heritage list this past year. The focus of our work was the Rendezvous, a large triumphal arch constructed in 1810 to the design of architect Josef Hardtmuth (also credited with the origination of the graphite pencil). The arch is one of 16 garden follies in the gardens and woods between the Lednice and Valtice Castles.
A grant from the WMF from the Samuel H. Kress Foundation was to fund the stabilization of a large limestone bas-relief and freestanding limestone statuary on the south facade of the structure. Fabricated of a porous bioclastic limestone from northern Austria, the sculpture had experienced dramatic deterioration. The restoration program proposed by the team from School of Restoration and Conservation Technology in Litomysl, a Czech conservation training program, included cleaning with solutions of ammonia and hydrogen peroxide and by mechanical scraping, removal of Portland cement fills, re-adhesion of fissured stone with an acrylic dispersion, and consolidation with ethyl silicate. Inspection of the sculpture showed that significant losses had occurred since completion of an earlier survey by students from the University of Pennsylvania, and that stabilization was urgently needed.
I had been asked to give Luke and Moira a quick course on limestones, their modes of deterioration and options for treatment, and to critique the proposed intervention. After discussion with John and Felicia, we were to propose priorities for continued work at the site.
The project was a remarkably successful team effort, due largely to the efforts of the American interns and the Czech students to socialize and live together, as well as work together. I came away from the week with a greater understanding of Czech stone preservation methods, and, of course, an appreciation for Czech beer and Moravian wine!
Richard Pieper is a Principal and Director of Preservation for Jan Hird Pokorny Associates in New York City, an architectural firm specializing in historic preservation. He is an adjunct assistant professor in the Columbia University Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Historic Preservation, and a US/ICOMOS Trustee.
REPORT ON THE SECULAR MEDIEVAL ARCHITECTURE CONFERENCE IN THESSALONIKI
As a US/ICOMOS representative, I presented a paper at the AIMOS (Society for the Study of Medieval Architecture in the Balkans and Its Preservation) conference in Thessaloniki, Greece, November 3-5. My participation was made possible by a grant from the Samuel H. Kress Foundation.
The conference, “Secular Medieval Architecture in the Balkans 1300-1500 and its Preservation,” coincided with the November 2nd opening of an exhibition of the same name, and the European Union’s honorific naming of Thessaloniki as the “Cultural Capitol of Europe: Thessaloniki, 1997.”
The exhibition represents a major milestone in scholarship: the first broad, regional presentation of the medieval architectural heritage of the Balkans. Devoted to the presentation of little-known secular monuments of the region, it included architectural drawings, photographs, illuminations, engravings and three-dimensional models of 94 monuments in Albania, Bulgaria, Bosnia, Croatia, Greece, Macedonia, Rumania, Turkey and Yugoslavia.
Before this exhibition and its catalogue was written (372 pp., 600 illus.), each of the Balkan states had presented their history in separate traditions. No general studies of the medieval architectural heritage of the region existed.
This regional focus was accomplished by a design that broke the Balkans down into nine functional typology categories that cut across present political boundaries. They included: 1) urban entities, 2) town fortifications, 3) fortresses, 4) citadels-forts, 5) public baths, 6) water supply, 7) industrial buildings, and 8) bridges.
The editors of the exhibition catalogue were Slobodan Curcic, Professor of Art and Archaeology at Princeton University, and Evangelia Hadjitriphonos, restoration architect in The Hellenic Ministry of Culture — 9th Ephoreia for Byzantine Antiquities,
The co-organizers of the exhibition/conference were AIMOS, which was formed for the purpose of founding a permanent center for documentary material related to the exhibition and for the facilitation of scholarly exchange; Princeton University; IPAC (Interactions Pour Le Patrimoine Architectural Communautaire); the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of Serbia; and The Greek Ministry of Culture – 9th Ephoreia of Byzantine Antiquities.
The conference brought together 40 speakers to discuss recent developments and preservation policy in the architectural preservation of the Balkans, and was very successful in producing fruitful discussions and professional interaction that successfully bypassed political differences.
Svetlana Popovic is a restoration architect and architectural historian with advanced degrees from University of Belgrade, associated with the Institute for Preservation of Historical Monuments, Belgrade, and an expert and author of the definitive work on the medieval monastic architecture of the Balkans. Ms. Popovic is a member and volunteer at US/ICOMOS.
INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP IN MACEDONIA
A workshop, Integrating Cultural Heritage into National Disaster Planning, Mitigation and Relief, was convened in Skopje and Ohrid, Macedonia, September 13-17, 1997. It was the first in a series of workshops to be held for national representatives in major regions of the world, with the goal of integrating cultural heritage worldwide into disaster planning, mitigation and relief.
Professionals in disaster planning and cultural heritage management from 14 countries in Central and Eastern Europe and some of the new independent states discussed conditions, opportunities and challenges. The workshop method included presentations by participants from within and outside the region in plenary sessions, small group discussions and country-specific planning meetings. At the conclusion of the workshop, participants from each country presented a plan for initiating the process of integration, with objectives, strategies, projected results and a timetable. Participating countries included: Albania, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Lithuania, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovenia, Ukraine and Yugoslavia.
Dr. Sultan Barakat, director of the Post-War Reconstruction and Development Unit (PRDU) at the University of York, UK, and Arlene K. Fleming, cultural resource management consultant and member of the US/ICOMOS Board of Trustees, proposed the series of regional workshops and coordinated this first one, hosted by Macedonia and arranged by Lazar Sumanov, Chairman of ICOMOS-Macedonia.
The workshop was organized by the PRDU, US/ICOMOS, ICOMOS-Macedonia and the Macedonia Committee of IDNDR (the United Nations International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction). Funding was provided by The Getty Grant Program, through US/ICOMOS, Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Macedonia and Open Society Institute Macedonia; and supported by UNESCO, ICOMOS, ICOM and IDNDR.
THE WORK OF HAER FEATURED
IN FRENCH EXHIBITION
The June 1997 issue of the journal, La revue, published by the Musée des arts et métiers, Paris, is devoted to the work of the Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) and complements an exhibition on the same theme, “Images du Patrimoine Industriel des Etats-Unis.” Jointly sponsored by the Ecomuseum of Creusot-Montceau, the Musée des arts et métiers, and the Mairie of the 3rd Arrondissement in Paris, the exhibition and the special issue of the journal were created by Louis Bergeron, President of TICCIH (The International Committee for the Conservation of the Industrial Heritage) and Director of Research at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en sciences sociales. The exhibition and journal render hommage to the work of the two U.S. pioneers in the field of industrial archaeology: HAER and the Hagley Foundation. The exhibit opened at Creusot and then moved to Paris.
An overview of the industrial heritage of the United States, by Louis Bergeron, is followed by an article by Eric DeLony, “HAER and the recording of technological heritage: a quarter century’s work;” “Hagley Museum and Library,” by Glenn Porter; “Technical exchanges, a Franco-American dialog, by Michel Cotte; “Images of the industrial heritage of the United States, 18th-19th centuries,” by Louis Bergeron and Maria Teresa Maiullari, covering chronological periods (From Independence to the Civil War, industrialization European-style: New England; Industry on a giant scale: from the Civil War to the Great Depression; The age of industrial heritage) and other areas of research (Engineers and mastering space; Mastering the subsoil and energy; Architecture and mastering materials).
50 pages of the journal, copiously illustrated, are devoted to industrial heritage. Articles are in French with an English summary supplement. To subscribe or to order this individual copy of La Revue, write to: Musée national des techniques-CNAM, 292 rue Saint-Martin, 75141 Paris Cedex 03, France, fax: 33-1-40-27-26-62.
ICOMOS CANADA ANNUAL MEETING AND SYMPOSIUM
With the theme “20 years of Sharing Knowledge,” ICOMOS Canada celebrated its 20th anniversary at its annual meeting in Ottawa from November 6-8, 1997. An important result of the meeting was the election of Guy Masson as the new Chairman of ICOMOS Canada. The meeting was also the occasion to pay tribute to those in the Committee who have worked on behalf of Canada in the international arena. Among those honored were Jacques Dalibard, Herb Stovel, François Leblanc, Christina Cameron, Dinu Bumbaru, Robin Letellier, Michel Bonnette, Pierre Nadon and Louise Trottier.
In response to an invitation from the Canadians, US/ICOMOS Executive Director, Gustavo Araoz, AIA, attended the meeting in Ottawa and shared the keynote podium at its opening session with Vjekoslava Simcic from Bosnia Herzegovina. Mr. Araoz also participated in the round table on sharing knowledge across international boundaries, where, among the experiences analyzed, was the U.S.-Canadian cooperation to protect the cultural and natural resources in the Lake Champlain basin.
Elaborating on the topic of the Conference, Mr. Araoz spoke of the need for the United States and Canada to share their knowledge and resources much more closely, especially in view of the two countries’ inextricable geographic, historic and cultural links; their close affinity in heritage protection and management approaches; and the long, unbroken friendship between the two countries. He urged members of the Canadian Committee to work ever more closely with their colleagues in US/ICOMOS by identifying joint activities and research areas of mutual concern. As an immediate gesture, he invited all Canadian members to attend the 1998 US/ICOMOS Annual Meeting and International Symposium as if it were their own. The response on the part of the Canadians was enthusiastic, and Canadian preservationists involved in private practice, public service and academia all expressed their desire for a closer working relationship with U.S. preservation institutions and individuals.
At the closing ceremonies, François Leblanc, former Chairman of ICOMOS Canada, provided a fitting conclusion to the successful meeting by challenging the new generation of ICOMOS to re-shape the organization to suit their professional needs, just as his own generation had done 20 years ago when ICOMOS Canada was created. Only through a constant re-birth and by adapting to a changing world can the effectiveness and relevance of ICOMOS be maintained.
U.S. PROTECTS ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IN MALI
Penn Kemble, Deputy Director of the United States Information Agency, in November presented Alpha Oumar Konaré, President of the Republic of Mali, with the new bilateral cultural property agreement signed in September by the United States and Mali. This agreement represents the ongoing effort by the United States to implement the 1970 UNESCO Convention, to which both countries are parties. The Convention establishes a framework for international cooperation restricting the unauthorized movement of cultural objects across international borders. Under the Convention, the United States has determined that the cultural heritage of Mali is in jeopardy from the pillage of archaological sites in the region of the Niger River Valley and will continue to restrict the importation of material from this region. U.S. import restrictions were first imposed in September 1993 as an interim emergency measure. Material designated as restricted may be imported if accompanied by an export certificate issued by the Government of the Republic of Mali.
An archaeologist by training and former museum professional, President Konaré served as president of the International Council of Museums (ICOM) for several years before becoming the first democratically elected president of Mali. Mr. Konaré was also a member of the ICOMOS Executive Committee in the 1980s.
Sites in the region of the Niger River Valley represent a continuum of civilizations from the Neolithic period to the colonial occupation, lending archaeological significance to the region. The material from these sites includes terracotta figures as well as copper, bronze and iron figurines. Also included in the import restriction is material from the Tellum burial caves of the Bandiagara Cliffs in the Niger River region.
Mali is the first and only African country to request and receive this form of protection from the U.S. In submitting its request, the Government of Mali stated that “the pillage and illicit traffic of cultural property of Malian patrimony continue with an intensity that constitutes a serious menace to an understanding of entire chapters of the history of Mali.”
WORLD BANK AND GETTY TRUST TO PARTNER
The World Bank and the J. Paul Getty Trust have agreed to an operational partnership to sustain cultural heritage in developing countries — to support access to, conservation of, and education about cultural heritage.
The agreement was cosigned by James D. Wolfensohn, President of the World Bank, and Harold M. Williams, President and CEO of the J. Paul Getty Trust. It reflects a growing focus by the Bank in the cultural field and increasing efforts with a number of institutions to integrate cultural heritage as a force in promoting sustainable development; for the Getty, it continues a long-standing commitment to forging broad alliances on a global scale — in conservation, education, scholarship, information technology and museology.
The Bank and the Getty Trust will strengthen their activities related to cultural heritage by working together to:
– Identify specific operations and projects where the Bank and the Getty can collaborate to protect and sustain cultural heritage — the Getty, for example, providing expertise to Bank-assisted projects;
– Jointly undertake pilot projets in cultural heritage and develop a research and evaluation agenda to assess the performance of these projects;
– Develop the Bank’s knowledge of current international standards of conservation and documentation practices and identify potential applications of Getty expertise;
– Mobilize financial and institutional resources for these objectives.
Easter Island: The Heritage and Its Conservation, by A. Elena Charola. New York, World Monuments Fund, 1995. A synthesis of the current knowledge on the mysterious island, its extraordinary monuments, and the conservation problems that confront them. Available in English or Spanish; 68 pp.; color illustrations. $25.00 includes shipping and handling. Order from World Monuments Fund, Attn: Publication Sales, 949 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10028, Tel: 212-517-9367; Fax: 212-517-9494.
Commentary on the UNIDROIT Convention 1995 by Lyndel V. Prott. A 145 page commentary published by the Institute of Art and Law gives the history and evolution of each article of the Convention, records the discussions on each of its provisions and supplies, in 13 Appendices, all the essential documents for its understanding, including the full text of the 1995 Convention and that of the 1970 UNESCO Convention, the 1954 Hague Convention and the 1993 European Directive. Drawing on decades of experience with the problems of illicit traffic in cultural objects, the author illuminates the provisions of the text with examples of cases and legislation which have inspired its provisions. She includes examples of some of the criticisms which have been made of articles of the Convention and responds to them. Indispensable for administrators whose government’s have become party or are considering becoming party to the Convention and also for lawyers who advise collectors, dealers, auction houses and museums.
Lyndel Prott, formerly Professor of Cultural Heritage Law at the University of Sydney, Australia, now administers UNESCO’s legal instruments for the protection of cultural heritage as Chief of the International Standards Section, Division of Cultural Heritage, UNESCO.
Cost: outside UK & Europe £28; Visa and Mastercard only accepted. Order from: Institute of Art and Law, Bank Chambers, 121 London Road, Leicester, LE2 0QT, UK, Tel: +44-116-255-5146; Fax: +44-116-255-1782; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Since its founding in 1916, the National Park Service has been charged with two equally important and often conflicting missions: to preserve our country’s natural wonders for future generations and to develop national parks for the appreciation and enjoyment of visitors. Recalling the era of the great lodges at Yellowstone and Yosemite, Building the National Parks: Historic Landscape Design and Construction tells the story of how the new bureau’s landscape designers, architects, and engineers met each of these challenges, forging a rich legacy of buildings, road and trails that both harmonized with teh natural scenery and accommodated visitors to the parks. Their achievements — detailed for the first time here — have greatly influenced the design of state and local parks and other recreational areas across the United States. Written by Linda McClelland, a historian for the National Register of Historic Places, a program of the National Park Service, this story of these early years, illusrated with 118 rare, archival photographs, is one of remarkable feats of engineering and consistently responsible stewardship.
7 x 10, 614 pages with 124 illus., $65 hardcover, $29.95 paperback. To order, call The Johns Hopkins University Press: 1-800-537-5487, visa and mastercard only accepted.
Forgotten History: Stories from the hospital
At the National Park Service’s Oral History Project at Ellis Island, NPS historian Paul Sigrist has collected the voices of immigrants who were denied entrance to the U.S. because of their health.
And in the files of the Public Health Service Library at Parkville, Maryland, PHS historian John Parascandola has collected the history of the PHS doctors and nurses who examined them. Together, the accounts give us a powerful understanding of the importance of the site, including a fascinating peek at the largest mass migration in world history and the period in which it occurred. At that time, public concern about the spread of epidemic diseases was particularly intense, and many Americans had exaggerated fears about the “immigrant menace” spurred by the flood tide of “aliens” who were pouring into the U.S.
The Health Inspection
First and second class steamship passengers who arrived in New York were examined in the privacy of their cabins, but the great majority of immigrants — those in steerage class — were taken straight to Ellis Island to begin their medical inspection.
The inspection began en masse in the Main Immigration building, as the newcomers proceeded up the stairs to the registry room. Public Health Service physicians stood at the top of the stairs, watching for signs of heart troubles, difficulty breathing, and physical disabilities. Other uniformed physicians stood at the head of lines in the registry room to inspect each newcomer’s hands, eyes, throat, and scalp. Their eyelids were inspected for trachoma, a contagious eye disease that could lead to blindness. The scalp was probed for lice and scabs, symptoms of favus, a contagious skin disorder. Leprosy, schistosomiasis, syphilis, and gonorrhea were other contagious diseases that could deny an immigrant entry to the country.
During the line inspection, Public Health Service doctors made a chalk mark on the right arm of the immigrant’s garment to indicate the need for a more detailed examination of the individual. “K” was the mark given for a suspected hernia, “G” for goiter, “X” for mentally deficient.
Before 1911, when two women were added to the staff, all medical examinations were done by male doctors, which was a source of anxiety for women who had never before been examined by a male doctor.
The military style and dress of the PHS doctors was another source of anxiety for newcomers, according to Katherine Beychock, a ten-year-old girl who emigrated from Russia in 1910.
“The doctors and everybody who were supposed to interrogate us were dressed in uniform,” she said. “…We were scared of uniforms. It took us back to the Russian uniforms that we were running away from.”
Officially, steamship authorities were responsible for performing health inspections before the boats left for the States, but these examinations were often perfunctory. Steamship owners wanted the boats as full as possible and were happy to risk having to return passengers to Europe, as doing so did not increase their costs. In addition, many steamship passengers contracted communicable diseases on board ship — whole boatloads of children arrived at Ellis Island with measles.
About two percent of the people inspected at the Ellis Island hospital were rejected for citizenship for health reasons. That is, for the 12 million people admitted to the U.S. between 1892 and 1924, another 240,000 people were rejected on the basis of their health.
PHS Hospital Patient Memories
The PHS hospital operated before antibiotics, so many patients held there were isolated for diseases that are no longer considered threatening, and many of the patients were children. Some children were hospitalized by themselves; others, like Anthony Meritai, were hospitalized with their whole families.
In 1910, Anthony’s mother, brother and sisters were held at the Ellis Island hospital because Anthony had a mastoid on his ear. Their father, who had been working in the States and eagerly awaiting their arrival, came to the hospital everyday, asking to be allowed to see them, but was not permitted to do so.
The youngest of the Meritai children, Joseph, was two-years-old at the time. While they were in the hospital, he came down with scarlet fever and died. In his oral account, Anthony Meritai remembers how deeply his mother suffered during the confinement.
A 15-year-old girl from Turk-dominated Greece emigrated to the U.S. by herself in 1919, after begging her father for many months to let her do so. She was detained at the hospital. In 1991, she looked back on that experience, recalling the anxious time when she walked along a “small road with thorns.”
“Would I be able to pass those thorns,” she says, “or [would] they have to send me back again? I cry. I cry all night.”
Bacos also remembers the tears of the Italian mother who sat next to her in the immigration hall. One of her children was clearly sick, Bacos remembers: “The child was coughing, and she was holding [him] and singing. All of a sudden a doctor and two nurses came to take the child away.”
The woman didn’t understand what the doctors were saying, or why or where they were taking her child, and she wept at her powerlessness, while the young Greek girl sitting next to her also wept in sympathy, unable to express her feelings any other way.
In 1923, at the age of ten, Josephine Cirella came to New York from Sicily on the Giuseppe Verdi.
A few days after the boat left the dock, she came down with swollen glands, and was placed in solitary confinement in the boat hospital. One night when she escaped.
Cirella says, “I ran away from the hospital looking for my mother in my nightgown…. I put my little arms around her, and I wouldn’t let her go anymore. So they locked us up. They brought us in the bottom of the boat and they locked us up. They used to bring our food, open the door…just like prisoners…and close the door.”
When she arrived in New York, Josephine was detained at the PHS hospital for 23 days, while her parents and sisters went on to Pennsylvania. Her father left a bond of $250 for her board at the hospital.
“Nobody told me anything,” she says. “[Two men carried me into the hospital.] I wanted my mother. I was kicking and screaming…after awhile I got tired and they put me in there.”
At first, Cirella was happy because she shared her confinement with an older girl.
“She must have been about 13,” Cirella says. “All she said was ‘Me Jew.’ We talked with our hands and [tried] to make each other understand. Thank God I had that girl.”
The Jewish girl left after about a week, and then Cirella was completely alone.
“Nobody ever said a word to me for 23 days. The nurse came in and took my temperature and gave me medicine. [They] “would holler if I tried to get out, so [I] spent most of [my] time during the day. . . asleep.
“At night, I would pick up the gate. . . and go look at the water and see the boats going through, and the Statue of Liberty and the ferries.”
Edward Chokolakian was 13 years old in 1920 when he spent nine months at the PHS hospital because he had been diagnosed with trachoma, a disease that Chokolakian says “comes from dirt and filth. No one has it anymore,” he says. (Trachoma was the most common cause for rejection, as it could lead to blindness, which would make the person unfit to work).
While he was at the hospital, the doctors talked openly about sending him back to Armenia.
“But my father was in the U.S.,” Cholokian said, [and he agreed] to pay the room and board….they couldn’t send me back… we had no country. Turks took everything, the land and everything else.”
“My father came here seven years before we landed, Cholakian says. He didn’t know a word of English. I think he worked in the steel mills.”
Cholakian’s medical treatment is something he remembers well.
“They held my hands and legs…there were a bunch of doctors. They would turn my eyelid up and rub a piece of stone.
Cholakian spent his time “roam[ing] around the hospital.” Sometimes, he went out side to look at the Statue of Liberty, but, he says “nobody told me what it was.”
The International Course on Wood Conservation Technology will be held from June 2 to July 10, 1998, at the Riksantikvaren (Directorate for Cultural Heritage) in Oslo, Norway. This is the 8th course on the conservation of cultural heritage made of wood. The course was initiated as a response to a recommendation from UNESCO’s General Conference in 1980, and has been arranged in Norway every second year since 1984.
The course is directed towards professionals who have been working for some years in the field of wood conservation, and emphasis is placed on the in situ conservation of wood. The main objectives of the course are:
– to give the coruse participants the theoretical and practical knowledge essential for diagnosing the causes of deterioration and for selecting the most appropriate methods of conservation and restoration of wood.
– to extend the knowledge of the participants beyond their own professions for a broader understanding of different aspects and approaches to wood conservation.
– to bring people in various professions from different countries and cultures together for a mutual learning experience, drawing on different experiences, practices and approaches to wood conservation and use of wooden materials.
The course is organized under the auspices of UNESCO by: ICCROM, ICOMOS, NWHO (Nordic World Heritage Office), Riksantikvaren-Norway, NTNU (Norwegian University of Science and Technology), NIKU (Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research).
Deadline for applications is February 1, 1998. Applications may be made on either ICCROM’s course application form or UNESCO’s fellowship application form. The working language is English. The maximum number of participants is 20.
Applications should be sent to: International Course on Wood Conservation Technology, c/o Foundation for Continuing Education, The Norwegian University for Science and Technology, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway.
For further information, contact: Tone Olstad, NIKU, P.b. 736 Sentrum, N-0105 Oslo, Norway, tel: +47-22-94-03-26, fax: +47-22-94-03-01, e-mail: email@example.com
CALL FOR PAPERS
ICOMOS-Israel and the Center for Jewish Art in Jerusalem have announced a Congress for experts in the recording of historic resources from all over the world to be held in Jerusalem, March 15-19, 1998. Congress organizers have issued a call for synopses of proposed papers concerning recording historic buildings and sites through the application of modern technology. The organizers will also welcome proposals for training courses and demonstrations.
Papers may address topics such as management, the place of recording in the conservation process, project reports, criteria for selecting recording techniques, innovative solutions for technical problems, information systems for cultural heritage, applications of various recording techniques to archaeology, and recording in the context of architectural history and education. The Congress will feature a trade show, demonstrations of innovations in technology, workshops and training sessions and an outreach workshop sponsored by CIPA (the ICOMOS International Committee on Architectural Photogrammetry) designed to undertake a needs analysis for recording, establishing standards and outlining training objectives.
Those interested in making presentations or in other forms of participation should send by January 1, 1998, the title and a brief synopsis (150 words or less) to the Center for Jewish Art, P.O.B. 4262, Jerusalem 91042, Israel (Tel: 972-2-6586605, Fax: 972-2-65866872, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
NEWS OF MEMBERS AND FRIENDS
US/ICOMOS Fellow Carl Feiss, 90, died on October 10 in Gainesville, Florida. Feiss, a retired city planner and urban renewal consultant, was an influential figure in the preservation of Washington, DC’s, landmarks in the 1950s and 1960s. His career spanned 50 years, beginning with his appointment as chief of the Planning and Engineering Branch, Division of Slum Clearance and Urban Redevelopment for the U.S. Housing and Home Finance Agency. Later he opened a planning consulting firm in Washington. He fought to preserve the District’s height restrictions, to develop a long-term growth plan, and to preserve the city’s open spaces. He was instrumental in the preservation of the historic centers of Annapolis and Alexandria. Feiss was technical director of national landmarks study and member of a group of urban planners who issued a report on architectural goals for the Washington area, among which were the restoration of a downtown commercial and cultural center and the reuse of historic buildings.
Mr. Feiss was a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania and received his masters degree in city planning from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was also a professor and director of various programs at the University of Florida, Gainesville.
Two members of US/ICOMOS have been awarded the prestigious Loeb Fellowship in Advanced Environmental Studies for 1997-1998. The fellowship was established through the generosity of John Loeb, Harvard College ’24, to offer men and women who have demonstrated leadership in the design and environmental professions awards for independent study at Harvard. Based at the Graduate School of Design, the program welcomes 10-12 highly motivated professionals each year who will use the fellowship to benefit society at large. The Loeb Fellowship permits fellows to pursue full- or part-time studies.
Charles A. Birnbaum is the coordinator of the Historic Landscape Initiative, a program of the National Park Service (NPS) Heritage Preservation Services Program. Prior to joining the NPS, Mr. Birnbaum spent a decade in private practice. Projects include work on the Emerald Necklace Parks, Boston, MA; Prospect Park, Brooklyn, NY, and others. At the NPS, he has drafted the Guidelines for the Treatment of Cultural Landscapes and was a writer and producer of the film, “Connections: Preserving America’s Landscape Legacy.” Other projects include a preservation brief on protecting cultural landscapes and three national database projects. He is an instructor at George Washington University and the recipient of the ASLA President’s Award of Excellence and inducted him as a Fellow of the Society.
Pamela W. Hawkes, AIA, is a principal of Ann Beha Associates, Inc., a Boston-based architecture firm specializing in buildings which support culture and community. She has developed innovative preservation planning projects for the New York Landmarks Conservancy, the National Trust for Historic Preservation, and numerous state and local historic sites.
Ms. Hawkes’s restoration of the Andover, MA, Town Hall won an Architectural Record “In the Public Interest Award.” The interior restoration of the Roycroft Inn in East Aurora, NY, earned an Honor Award from the National Trust and transformed a community which had been listed on the Trust’s “Eleven Most Endangered” list. Her current work includes refurbishment of Boston’s Symphony Hall; restoration of the Ca’ d’Zan at the John and Mable Ringling Museum in Sarasota, FL; and design of a new visitors center for the Adirondack Museum.
Ms. Hawkes is a member of the Boston Landmarks Commission and has served on the Massachusetts Historical Commission and the boards of Historic Massachusetts Inc. and the Boston Society of Architects. For the past two years, she has participated in the Mayors’ Institute on City Design, and in 1994 she served as a professional advisor for the Boston City Hall Plaza Competition.
Henry J. Browne, AIA, has retired from total commitment to his firm of 38 years, and now has a small personal practice. He has just completed the the restoration of Walkers Mill, an old grist mill in Keswick, Virginia, which was awarded the restoration award for 1997 by the Preservation Alliance of Virginia.
Former US/ICOMOS intern Julia Rota (USA, 1994) was recently named faculty of the Kettering Foundation’s National Issues Forums Public Policy Institute. Throughout the year at workshops held at various universities, the PPI trains people in leading constructive civil discussion of important, difficult and controversial issues for communities and organizations. Providing a positive climate for substantive discussion and successfully planning future directions for any type of group are key tools that participants learn and bring back to their communities.
US/ICOMOS is grateful for the invaluable contributions of several dedicated volunteers: Moya B. King, Svetlana Popovic and Jody Cabezas
US/ICOMOS BOARD OF TRUSTEES
Officers: Ann Webster Smith, Chair; Robert Wilburn, Vice Chair; Roy E. Graham, FAIA, Secretary; Arlene Fleming, Treasurer. Members: Sarah S. Boasberg, Adele Chatfield-Taylor, William S. Colburn, Henry Hoffstot, John T. Joyce, James P. Kiernan, Norman L. Koonce, FAIA, R. Randolph Langenbach, Spencer Leineweber, AIA, Margaret G.H. Mac Lean, Richard Pieper, Constance W. Ramirez, Peter H. Stott, Thomas Schmidt, Michael R. Taylor
Ex officio: Robert P. Bergman, American Association of Museums; David Roccosalva, American Institute of Architects; Darwina L. Neal, American Society of Landscape Architects; Mark Meister, Archaeological Institute of America; John C. Poppeliers, National Park Service; Peter Brink, National Trust for Historic Preservation; Francine C. Berkowitz, Smithsonian Institution; Tobi Brimsek, Society for American Archaeology; Maria P. Kouroupas, USIA; Pauline Saliga, Society of Architectural Historians; Elliott Carroll, past ICOMOS Vice President; John M. Fowler, immediate past Chairman
Ann Webster Smith, ICOMOS Vice President; Hisashi B. Sugaya, Chair, ICOMOS International Committee on Cultural Tourism
US/ICOMOS SPECIALIZED COMMITTEE CHAIRS
Hester A. Davis, Archaeological Heritage Management; A. Elena Charola and Blaine Cliver, Brick Masonry and Ceramics; Hugh C. Miller, FAIA, Cultural Tourism; Maribel Beas, Earthen Architecture; Ronald Lee Fleming and Raul Garcia, Historic Towns; Charles Birnbaum and Robert Page, Historic Landscapes; Stephen N. Dennis, Legislation; Roy Eugene Graham, Training; William Chapman, Vernacular Architecture; Hiroshi Daifuku, Wood.
Gustavo F. Araoz, AIA, Executive Director; Ellen M. Delage, Program Director;
Accounting: Nonprofit Management Services
1983: Ernest A. Connally, Hiroshi Daifuku, Robert R. Garvey, Jr. †, Richard H. Howland, Robert Thayer †.
1984: J. O. Brew †, Carl Feiss, FAIA, James Marston Fitch, Frederick Gutheim †.
1985: Eduard F. Sekler.
1986: Barclay Gibbs Jones, Robert E. Stipe.
1987: William J. Murtagh, Paul N. Perrot, Ann Webster Smith.
1988: Charles E. Peterson, FAIA.
1989: Russell V. Keune, AIA, Terry B. Morton, Hon.AIA, W. Brown Morton III, Hon.AIA, John Poppeliers.
1991: Robertson E. Collins, George Scheffer.
1994: Elliott Carroll, FAIA, Hugh C. Miller, FAIA.
1996 :Marvin Breckenridge Patterson, Mr. and Mrs. J. Bennett Johnston.
CERTIFICATES OF SERVICE
1991: Barbara Bowen, Randolph Kidder, Erin Muths.
1992: Dorothy Carroll, M. Burton McVernon, Thomas Richards, Hiroshi Daifuku
1993: Barbara Timken.
ICOMOS INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEES: Archaeological Heritage Management* Photogtammetry Cultural Tourism* Rock Art Economics of Conservation Stained Glass Earthen Structures* Stone Historic Gardens and Sites* Structures Historic Towns* Training* Inventories* Underwater Cultural Heritage Legislation* Vernacular Architecture* Wood*
* Corresponding US/ICOMOS National Specialized Committees
ICOMOS NATIONAL COMMITTEES
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US/ICOMOS MISSION STATEMENT
US/ICOMOS fosters heritage conservation and historic preservation at the national and international levels through education and training, international exchange of people and information, technical assistance, documentation, advocacy and other activities consistent with the goals of ICOMOS and through collaboration with other organizations.
US/ICOMOS membership includes professionals, practitioners, supporters and organizations committed to the protection, preservation and conservation of the world’s cultural heritage. US/ICOMOS is the U.S. National Committee of the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), the international nongovernmental organization dedicated to the preservation and conservation of the world’s heritage.
The US/ICOMOS Newsletter is published by US/ICOMOS six times a year. Members are encouraged to submit articles, illustrations and editorial items for inclusion in the Newsletter. Contributors are solely responsible for the facts and opinions stated herein, and publication in this Newsletter does not constitute an official endorsement by US/ICOMOS.
Please send submissions and any inquiries to the Editor, US/ICOMOS Newsletter, 401 F Street, NW, Room 331, Washington, DC 20001-2728.
This newsletter has been financed in part with Federal funds from the National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. However, the contents and opinions do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of the Interior.