In this IssueUS/ICOMOS Earthen Architecture Committee NewsletterCall for Nominations for Trustees, Officers and FellowsICOMOS Meeting in BrazilTrainingNews of Members and FriendsMembership NOMINATIONS SOUGHT FOR US/ICOMOS TRUSTEES, OFFICERS AND FELLOWSThe Trusteeship Committee of the US/ICOMOS Board of Trustees is currently soliciting nominations of members to fill positions available as Trustees and Officers. The Committee is chaired by Robert Wilburn, and includes the members of the Executive Committee. The Committee urges US/ICOMOS members to participate in the nomination process by forwarding suggestions of qualified persons to Mr. Wilburn, at Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Box 1776, Williamsburg, VA 23187-1776, by December 15, 1997.All officers up for election; the terms of the Chair, Vice Chair, Secretary and Treasurer. During the year, Treasurer Roy Eugene Graham resigned as Secretary but retained his membership in the Board. Mr. Graham’s term expires at the next election. Blaine Cliver, whose term does not expire until the year 2000, was appointed to fill the remainder of Mr. Graham’s term as Secretary. Mr. Cliver’s Board membership is unaffected, however, the position of Secretary is open for electionBoard members whose terms expire at the end of the year are William S. Colburn and Roy Eugene Graham. All these Board members are eligible for reelection.In considering their nominations, US/ICOMOS members may wish to review the following list of major qualifications of Trustees and Officers: 1) Demonstrated interest in US/ICOMOS and the preservation of the international cultural heritage.2) Experience in managing or influencing the management of a commercial, educational, professional or other enterprise — nonprofit or otherwise — with responsibility for conducting business affairs or programs and managing assets, both tangible and intangible.3) Working knowledge of the financial structures and the means by which nonprofit organizations customarily conduct their business affairs.4) Ability to creditably represent US/ICOMOS in public forums dealing with US/ICOMOS matters.5) Close relationships with other public and private institutions in this and related fields.6) Significant national and international professional connections.”The Successful Volunteer Organization,” has this to sayregarding how to achieve the most effective Board:”Many people recommend a board made up of one-third affluent people, one-third volunteers and one-third professionals — the three Ws: wealth, work and wisdom. Ideally, a board member should be someone who:1. Is committed to the mission of the organization;2. Raises money for the organization; that is, this person asks others for money and gives according to his or her means;3. Is recognized by the people in the organization for his or her honesty, enthusiasm, courage and common sense;4. Attends meetings regularly;5. Is willing to work hard;6. Knows about the issues, the problems and the solutions;7. Commits himself or herself for a complete term of office;8. Recruits new members and helps each one find a place in the group;9. Believes in democracy and majority rule. Enthusiastically supports the group’s decisions, even when he or she is on the losing side;10. Wants to serve on the Board.US/ICOMOS also tries to maintain geographic and gender diversity among its Trustees.Fellowship US/ICOMOS is also seeking nominations of members as US/ICOMOS Fellows. The criteria and guidelines are as follows:The United States Committee of the International Council on Monuments and Sites shall honor, for achievement in international preservation, American scholars, professionals and civic volunteers, who have made notable long-term contributions to the enhancement of the quality of life. Those honored shall be known as Fellows and must have worked to advance international preservation standards and programs. Outstanding accomplishments shall be recognized in one or more areas of activity, including but not limited to architecture, architectural history, conservation, history landscape architecture and urban planning. Nominees shall be members of US/ICOMOS. The sponsor of a nomination shall submit a digest of the nominee’s career and achievements. It must contain a biographical sketch and summarize and editorialize the nominee’s accomplishments in the international preservation activity in which the nominee has excelled. The sponsor shall list five individuals as references, to whom the jury will write for supporting letters. Sponsors must not solicit supporting letters.Nominations should be sent to Robert Wilburn, US/ICOMOS Trusteeship Committee Chairman at Box 1776, Williamsburg, VA. 23187-1776 no later than December 15, 1997.Board members whose terms expire at the end of the year are William S. Colburn and Roy Eugene Graham. All these Board members are eligible for reelection.ICOMOS: BRAZIL MEETINGThe last meetings of The ICOMOS Bureau and The Executive Committee were held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, July 30- August 2. These events coincided with an international symposium to explore the various uses of the cultural heritage, which was hosted by ICOMOS Brazil’s President Susanna Cruz Sampaio.Papers were presented by members of ICOMOS Brazil and by other national committee members, including Ann Webster Smith, US/ICOMOS Chairman, who spoke on the state of preservation training in the U.S.ICOMOS Secretary General Jean Louis Luxen addressed the meeting, saying that training is an important but daunting challenge for the future, given the many disciplines involved. He extolled the benefits of programs that reconcile practical, on-the-job training with theory, citing the apprentissage system in the Benelux countries, the escuelas-taller in Spain, Compagnons in France and the PETRA and LEONARDO programs of the European Community. The Secretary General also said that priority needs to be given to training trainers, praising the innovative reorientation of the program at The Center of San Servolo in Venice. The Secretary General said he believes that national and international training programs need to be coordinated with ICCROM and that greater attention needs to be given to geographical regions with special needs.Several of the Brazilian papers addressed the conservation of urban heritage in Brazil’s World Heritage cities of Olinda and Recife, as well as in other historic towns such as Niteroi. Fernando Madeira spoke about the complex pressures that must be balanced to preserve Brasilia. These include increasing vehicular traffic; inadequate parking and public transports; the invasion of public lands by squatter communities; the retreat of the middle class into gated communities or “encastelamentos da burguesia” (castles of the bourgeois); and the continuing problem of increasing rural migration to the capital city.The archeological heritage, including subaquatic, colonial and industrial sites was also discussed. Dorath Pinto Uchoa presented a report on ongoing work at the site of Abarebebe in the coastal plain of the state of Sao Paulo, where a new understanding is emerging on the role of the religious orders in indigenous populations during the 18th century. Another paper discussed Belo Horizonte, the 1906 Souza Pinto sawmill, which has been the focus of an adaptive use project. Gilson Rambelli highlighted several projects on submerged sites and then presented the NAUI Brazil project, an adaptation of a National Association of Underwater Instructors program in the U.S.During their work sessions, The Executive Committee agreed that The ICOMOS Bureau should begin a study of ICOMOS’ mission, objectives and structure as we look towards the next millennium. As part of this analysis, the ICOMOS Bureau will give serious consideration to joint actions with other organizations. The study has been designed to provide a focus for discussion on where ICOMOS should be by the year 2000 and beyond. TRAININGThe International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM) will offer a 12-14 week course in architectural conservation in Rome, Italy, beginning in April 1998. International Forum on Architectural Conservation (ARC 98) is open to U.S. citizens who are mid-career conservation professionals involved in training or practice, including architects, civil engineers, archaeologists and art historians. Applicants to the course must return their applications to the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, Washington, DC, by November 10, 1997.ARC 98 offers a platform for exchanging information and experience, discussing state-of-the-art approaches and trends through a post-graduate refresher forum. Topics will include issues and concerns of architectural heritage conservation and subjects of current debate and research, with a stress on principles, methodologies, science, ethics and an international, interdisciplinary approach. Also discussed will be issues emerging as new responsibilities and competencies of the profession.The course, which is composed of modules, is open to either full- or short-term participants. Candidates for the course are those who are potential disseminators of knowledge and skills and are influential on national or regional developments relevant to the profession and heritage concerned.For inquiries and applications, contact: Stephanie Woronowicz, Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, #809, Washington, DC 20004, tel: 202-606-8503.Other courses offered in 1998:Conservation of mural Paintings and Related decorated Surfaces (MPUC 98). April-June 1998 (10 weeks), in English, at ICCROM, Rome. Application deadline period: October 31-November 6, 1997.Non-Destructive and Micro-Destructive Analytical Methods for Conservation of Works of Art (AMC 98). September-October 1998, in English, at ICCROM, Rome. Application deadline: April 30, 1998.For inquiries and applications, contact: ICCROM, Training Section, 13 Via di San Michele, 00153 Rome, Italy, tel: 39-6-585-531; fax: 39-6-5855-3349; e-mail: email@example.com or internet: http://www.iccrom.orgInternational Preservation Trades Workshop, Frederick Maryland, November 5-7, 1997. Two and one-half days dedicated topreservation trades demonstrations. To register, or for more information, contact Laurie Hempton, NPS Historic Preservation Training Center, 4801-A Urbana Pike, Frederick , Maryland, 21704 Tel.: (301) 663-8206. E-mail; firstname.lastname@example.org BENIN: THE ROYAL PALACES OF ABOMEYAfter four years of work, the conservation project on bas-reliefs from the Salle des Bijoux at The Historic Museum at the Royal Palaces of Abomey is complete. (See US/ICOMOS Earthen Architecture Committee Newsletter, 1994.) The project was sponsored by The Getty Conservation Institute (GCI) and The Ministry of Culture and Communication, Republic of Benin (West Africa).The Royal Palaces of Abomey are a World Heritage site and include several earthen buildings that are spread over 190 acres. The first Abomey palace was constructed in 1645. The complex was repeatedly expanded over the next 250 years as each succeeding king built his own palace near those of his predecessors.Abomey was the capitol of the once-powerful Dahomey kingdom and is now a part of The Republic of Benin. Its palaces are an important record of the historic Fon people of Dahomey. The palaces’ earthen bas-reliefs in particular, illustrate the cultural heritage, mythology, customs and rituals of the kingdom.The Conservation Project In 1988, bas-reliefs from the Salle des Bijoux were removed from their original location, re-mounted as individual panels in heavy casings of stabilized earth (local earth plus 8-10 percent cement) and placed in storage. In 1991, The Getty Conservation Institute was invited to help in the conservation of these bas-reliefs and a joint project was launched in 1993. Field campaigns have been held twice a year since that time.Problems encountered on the 50 bas-reliefs were numerous, complex, and often daunting. In the worst cases, the panels were shattered and had to be reconstructed on a new support. Other panels showed deterioration from erosion and salts or damage done by old repairs made with inappropriate materials. The detachment from the wall itself also damaged many of the bas-reliefs, as did subsequent transport between storage areas.Preliminary documentation of the history, conservation history and condition of each bas-relief was collected prior to treatment, and emergency stabilization was carried out while the bas-relief was in its storage area. Then the bas-reliefs, which weigh up to 300 kgs. each, were transported to the on-site conservation studio and treated in sets of ten. Conservation treatment included structural repairs to the panels, filling of voids and losses, revealing of original material, cleaning, and re-integration. Traditional materials were primarily used. The local earth available was analyzed and proved to be the most compatible material for fills.Black and white and color formal photographic documentation was done of the bas-reliefs before, during, and after treatment. Graphic documentation was also done for each bas-relief to show the condition before treatment and conservation procedures. Project activities were also recorded, including transport of the bas-reliefs, treatment procedures, and fabrication of new bas-reliefs on the reconstructed Salle des Bijoux building. “History Told on Walls,” a video that documented the conservation and the living tradition of bas-reliefs in Abomey was made by GCI in conjunction with the project.The conservation team was co-led by Francesca Piqué, Conservation Specialist, GCI and Leslie Rainer, Senior Fellow, Special Projects, GCI. The team consisted of a training coordinator, a documentation photographer, and wall-paintings conservators. Six museum professionals from Benin’s Department of Cultural Patrimony were trained in different aspects of the project and assisted on the technical conservation treatment, transport and storage of the bas-reliefs.Following conservation treatment, the bas-reliefs were placed in temporary storage. An exhibit is being planned for them as an integral part of the Abomey museum collections. The exhibit will focus on the conservation of the bas-reliefs and highlight the project carried out over the last four years.The results of the project will also be presented within the context of the international conference: “Past, Present and Future of the Royal Palaces and Sites of Abomey,” a conference that is being sponsored by GCI, ICCROM and The Republic of Benin’s Department of Cultural Patrimony, and its Ministry of Culture and Communication. The conference will be held in Abomey September 23-27, 1997 and will present recent conservation efforts on the site and address future conservation and management needs.Francesca Piqué and Leslie RainierWELCOME FROM EARTHEN ARCHITECTURE’S NATIONAL CHAIRThis edition of the US/ICOMOS Newsletter presents articles on research activities at several institutions: The University of Pennsylvania, The National Park Service, Columbia University, and The Getty Conservation Institute. It includes reports on Penn’s research projects at Catalhuyuk, at Casa Grande Ruins National Monument and at Fort Union National Monument (the last two in collaboration with the National Park Service); Columbia University’s research on laboratory tests on ethyl silicates and on the development of an adobe laboratory; and The Getty Conservation Institute’s update of the Getty Seismic Strengthening project and a report on the conservation of bas-reliefs in The Republic of Benin.Other articles present work done in the borderlands by former Chairman Mike Taylor, and a note by Buzz McHenry on the Earth Architecture Center International (EACI). Buzz has built a very interesting site on the INTERNET. Don’t miss it! Also, look for The Getty Conservation Institute’s announcement on the on-going research project on earthen structures. Last but not least, we have included a report on the Pan-American course on the Conservation and Management of Earthen Architectural and Archaeological Heritage that was held in Peru.Thanks to all of you for your contributions to the newsletter.On the international front, (the “mud front”) we have a new chairman. Fernando Pinto, Director of the Direcao Geral de Edificios e Monumentos Nacionais in Portugal (DGEMN), has replaced Alejandro Alva, the co-director of ICCROM’s Gaia Project, as the Chairman of ICOMOS International Committee for the Study and Conservation of Earthen Architecture. Benvindo Fernando!Please keep in touch. My e-mail address is email@example.com. My snail mail address is 458 Westminster Road, Wenonah, NJ 08090.Maribel G. Beas, Chairman, US/ICOMOS National Committee on Earthen ArchitectureLETTER FROM FERNANDO PINTO, THE NEW CHAIRMAN OF ICOMOS INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE STUDY AND CONSERVATION OF EARTHEN ARCHITECTUREEarthen Architecture has its roots in tradition. And it is tradition that the ICOMOS International Committee for the Study and Conservation of Earthen Architecture has a responsibility to study and preserve. Tradition is a national identity factor. It represents knowledge passed from generation to generation. More than any building, tradition represents a “know-how” which, once lost, can hardly ever be recovered. Extinction is forever. More than the object, it is the originating gesture that is important to preserve. It is a primary responsibility of the national committees to survey and record earthen construction technologies of the regions where they are located. By assembling the individual knowledge of the national committees, we will be able to acquire a global view of the different technologies and their connections. Then it will be possible to relate the technologies with both the environments where they originate and their peoples’ migrations.US/ICOMOS Specialized Committee on Earthen Architecture has a fundamental role and many responsibilities. It is a fact that the American Indians already used earth as a building material before Columbus arrived in this region. It is also a fact that the Europeans, Africans and Asians who came to North America brought with them their own construction techniques and fused them with the native technologies. The survey of all Earthen Architecture technology is an important task and I propose all members of the national committees consider, and specially US/ICOMOS. Only with the support of all members can the International Committee accomplish this and other important tasks. It is particularly difficult to succeed Alejandro Alva Balderrama, whose technical, organizational and human competence is recognized throughout the world. He leaves a well-organized and respected committee. It is now my responsibility to continue this tradition. With the support of all of you, it will be possible to succeed. I am fortunate to be able to count on my great friend and colleague Michael Romero Taylor (ARCH 87), the vice-chairman of the Committee on Earthen Architecture. He is, for those who are privileged to know him, the best guarantee that all that is possible will be accomplished.I am now able to devote my time to developing and promoting our committee. I am working on some of the ideas presented last December at an informal meeting in Trujillo, Peru.With best wishes, I greet all US/ICOMOS members, the ones I know and the ones I don’t (yet) know, through Maribel Beas, my colleague and friend since Grenoble, France (PAT 92). Thanks to all of you.Fernando Pinto, ChairmanUPDATE ON THE GETTY SEISMIC STRENGTHENING OF ADOBE PROJECTThe 1994 earthquake at Northridge, California, threw a monkey wrench into The Getty Seismic Adobe Project’s (GSAP) schedule, but valuable lessons were learned as a result and they have had positive effects upon the testing program. Some of these are summarized in a report, “The Survey of Damage to Historic Adobe Buildings after January 1994 Northridge Earthquake.” The report was published in 1996, and is available from The Getty Trust Publications book Distribution Center, 14931 Califa, Unit B, Van Nuys, CA 91411-3002; Tel: (818)788-6943. The cost is $20.The final GSAP project report and the Seismic Retrofit and Planning Guidelines will be ready for distribution soon. Large scale testing of the most promising technologies tested at Stanford since 1990 were re-tested in Macedonia last year and a report on that extension of the GSAP project program will be forthcoming. The retrofitted and control models were roughly the size of a modest one room adobe dwelling, complete with tapanco (alto) type roof systems, which are typical of vernacular architecture. The test model was retrofitted using center cores as well as cables with through-wall ties and a partial plywood roof diaphragm. The retrofit methodologies tested prevented collapse of the structure at the maximum excitation of the large shaking table. Damage was restricted to repairable, non-structural cracks. Members of the project team presented GSAP results at the ICOMOS Costa Rica Conference on Earthen Architectural Conservation in April. Costa Rica banned adobe construction following a major earthquake soon after the turn of the century; however, many historic earthen structures remain to be strengthened. Last year, GSAP project team member Edna Kimbro presented information about the project and the Northridge Earthquake at the ICOMOS Costa Rica conference on Natural Disasters and the Conservation of the Built Heritage in Limon, which stimulated interest in the renewed efforts to preserve earthen architecture in Central America.A final meeting of the GSAP advisory committee will evaluate project findings and consider appropriate additional media and methods for information distribution. A bilingual video has been proposed with an illustrated handbook.Edna E. KimbroCONFERENCE ON EARTHEN ARCHITECTURE HELD IN PERUTwenty-four architects, archaeologists and conservators from 13 countries met in Peru last November for the Curso Panamericano sobre la Conservacion y el Manejo del Patrimonio Arquitectonico Historico-Arquelogico de Terra, an intensive five-week course on the conservation and management of earthen architecture and archaeological heritage.The course (PAT96) was organized by The Instituto Nacional de Cultura del Peru; ICCROM; The International Center for Earth Construction; The Getty Conservation Institute; and was sponsored by The European Union and the World Heritage Fund of UNESCO. PAT96 was held at Chan Chan, a 14 km. earthen city constructed and occupied by the Chimu people from the 9th – 15th century. Other nearby sites in the Moche Valley, such as Huaca de la Luna, EL Brujo, Huaca del Dragon, and a number of earthen colonial houses and churches in the city of Trujillo also served as field laboratories for the course.Twenty instructors presented lectures, demonstrations, and exercises on the theoretical and practical issues of earthen architecture conservation, emphasizing the following themes:1) The history and universality of earthen architecture; 2) The technology of earthen construction; 3) The history and theory of conservation; 4) Planning for conservation management; 5) Recording and documentation; 6) Deterioration pathology and condition analysis; and 7) Intervention (including preventive conservation).Emphasis was also given to topics with regional significance, such as seismic mitigation and decorated surfaces on earthen supports.PAT96 was scheduled to coincide with a celebration of the tenth anniversary of the inscription of Chan Chan on the World Heritage List. One of the memorable events of the celebration was the “Abrazo de Chan,” when 17,000 school children from the Trujillo area encircled the site hand-in-hand, drawing attention to the need to care for this national treasure.Erica Avrami, Training Program Coordinator, Getty Conservation InstitutePRESERVING OUR EARTHEN ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE ALONG THE BORDERLANDSIn 1996, The INAH Centro Chihuahua (Mexico), The National Park Service (U.S.) and New Mexico State Monuments (U.S.) collaborated on two symposia dedicated to finding ways to better preserve earthen architectural heritage along the borderlands. This heritage includes earthen archaeological sites; currently inhabited adobe buildings and districts along the border states; and adobe building traditions. The first symposium was held in Casas Grandes, Chihuahua at the archaeological site of Paquime in May, 1996. At that conference, practitioners from different parts of Mexico presented reports on on-going adobe preservation projects. The second, September 1996 meeting was a travelling symposium that was held at sites in both New Mexico and Texas. The symposium included visits to the church at Dona Ana, the Town of Mesilla, Fort Selden State Monument, Pecos National Historical Park, Coronado State Monument, Jemez State Monument (all in New Mexico), and Fort Davis National Park in Texas.The goal of the conference was to provide opportunities for candid and constructive exchanges of information regarding adobe preservation techniques and management methodologies for sites. Several bi-national projects have resulted from these exchanges, including 1) the upcoming publication of the symposia proceedings; 2) a compilation of traditional technical methods of building with earth; 3) condition assessments and proposed interventions at adobe sites in need of emergency repairs; 4) training in the use of lime and of various methods to repair adobe walls; 5) the preparation of site management plans for sites such as Paquime; and 6) the fabrication of a bilingual traveling exhibit dealing with the importance and advantages of building with earth and preserving our common adobe built environment. This interaction of practitioners along the border states has also enabled a broader understanding of common building practices and traditions, and an opportunity for participants to learn from one another the ways to continue the sustainable traditions of building with adobe.Michael Romero TaylorPart of the September symposium “Preservation of Earthen Architectural Heritage along the Borderlands” took place at Doña Ana, a historic church near Las Cruces, New Mexico. The photo, right, shows village inhabitants restoring the church.CASA GRANDE RUINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM (NPS)Phase One of The Casa Grande Ruins National Monument Conservation Program began this summer (1997). The first phase included materials characterization, structural analysis, and condition survey/assessment.Sponsored by The Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, The Intermountain Cultural Resource Center /National Park Service (ICRC/NPS) and The University Of Pennsylvania, the program will help to develop a long-range plan for the in situ conservation of the site. A secondary objective — to develop standardized terminology and techniques for the examination and long-term monitoring of earthen and masonry architectural remains — will help to create a more consistent and objective data base for future studies. A third objective is the practical training of conservators, archaeologists, maintenance personnel and the local Native American community in historic preservation issues.The Casa Grande Ruins have played a major role in the development of preservation policies and conservation techniques for prehistoric ruins and archaeological sites in the U.S. ever since it was first identified and protected by the United States government in the 1890’s. This project is designed to continue that tradition and to provide site needs and advanced-training opportunities for graduate students, NPS staff and the community.The project is being directed by Jake Barrow, ICRC/NPS and Frank Matero, UPenn. The project supervisor is Robert Hartzler, IMRC/NPS. Consultants include Maribel Beas, documentation architect, UPenn; Kate Dowdy, documentation archaeologist; and G. Eric Johansen, engineer, UPenn. The 1997 student team included Leslie Berman, Scott Carpenter, Elsa Del Bono, James Dossett, Karen Fix, Kecia Lee Fong, Chris Gembinski, Elizabeth Moss, Guy Munsch, and Shaun Provencher.PRESERVATION PLAN: FORT UNION NATIONAL MONUMENTFort Union National Monument commemorates an important supply post on the historic Santa Fe Trail, the last major stop for westbound travelers heading to Santa Fe. It is also the largest adobe ruin in the United States, and it sits at the edge of the northern New Mexico plains where adobe construction is common, but frequent storms and hard driving rain in the warmer months and snow in the winter are also common. Its size, and location combined with the technical and budgetary constraints of ruins preservation throughout the world have made it an enormous challenge to adobe preservation.In the fall of 1995, the National Park Service rose to the challenge, commissioning a conservation team to study the stabilization and conservation history of the fort, and the relationship between its architecture (wall intersections, brick chimneys, wall orientation, etc.) and adobe durability. The team physically surveyed most of the fort, measuring existing wall height and thickness, and noting spatial relationships among the wall remnants. The team also installed a simple monitoring system to study the effect of wall orientation on wall erosion around architectural features, such as amended caps, wall bases and window openings.In the summer of 1996, the team constructed and capped six small test walls with unamended adobe bricks, and adobes amended with varying proportions of hydrated lime, hydrated hydraulic lime, acrylic emulsion, and white Portland cement. The test walls were constructed on the poured concrete foundations of late-1950s test walls installed at Fort Union shortly after the monument was established. (The test walls on the foundations used had long since weathered to the ground, however some walls capped with soil-cement still remain.) Amended and unamended shelter coats were applied to selected non-historic and historic walls.In the spring of 1997, the NPS assessed the adobe-weathering monitoring system, and the test wall capping and shelter coats, and finalized a strategic plan to best maintain the adobe ruin. Fort Union was established as a ruins preserve, so reconstruction is prohibited. Shelters also are an unlikely solution for Fort Union, because of the sheer size of the resource and the negative visual impact they would have on the fort and the high plains landscape. The report issued at the conclusion of the 1995 research recommended a program of amended and unamended shelter coats and wall caps, and selective unamended adobe infill to maintain critical architectural elements. Bracing unstable walls with new adobe buttresses is also an option under consideration, as well as continued use of steel tube bracing.The priority for the summer of 1997 was the beginning of a multi-year program of capping, laying new amended adobes over the approximately 30-year-old existing cement-modified adobe caps. Most of the old caps are in decent condition, but some are cracked and broken, and the mortar joints have begun to erode, allowing rain and snow melt to attack the historic adobes beneath. When the old cement-modified adobes were tested for water intake with a Rilem tube, it was discovered that they were far more porous than either the modern trial amended materials, or the historic adobes. Since this combination of porosity and permeability is considered to be beneficial in adobe wall caps, it was considered evidence that while the old caps may have caused some coving initially, they were doing no harm now and should be left in place to protect the wall tops. The conservation team also felt that removal of the old caps still in good condition would cause unacceptable damage to the historic adobe. Instead, adobe masons will clean the wall tops of broken caps and eroded fragments, fill weathered mortar joints with amended mortar, and lay a new layer of amended capping on top. Choice of the repair material depends on assessment of the weathering of the capping on the test walls.Fort Union has been the site of a National Park Service/University of Pennsylvania field school every summer since 1991. Graduate students in the Historic Preservation program spend two to four weeks stabilizing historic plasters on the fort’s adobe walls. The work in the autumn of 1995 and summer of 1996 was an outgrowth and extension of this program. All preservation work at Fort Union conforms to the Secretary of Interior’s Standards and Guidelines for Archeology and Historic Preservation, and NPS-28, Cultural Resource Management Guideline.USE OF ETHYL POLYSILICATE AS AN ADOBE CONSOLIDANTThere has been a recent resurgence in the use and testing of both ethyl silicate and ethyl polysilicate as an adobe consolidant. This research has been almost exclusively field work, however, and has included little corollary laboratory research. Laboratory research is important because it makes possible the study of the effects of multiple variables on the efficacy, usability, optical qualities and cost of a given consolidant. Much current research on consolidates has used straight silicates (for example, ethyl polysilicate was used in research done by The Getty in New Mexico and ethyl silicate was used by UPenn in Turkey). This study examines the effects of the type and amount of catalyst, the water/silica ratio and the alcohol/silica ratio on an ethyl silicate-40 (Silbond-40) based consolidant.The Research ProtocolThe ratio of alcohol to silica has perhaps the greatest effect on cost and the least on efficacy/optical quality. Commercial alcohols vary greatly as to alcohol and water content; care should be taken to keep methanol and water content low. Fifty parts polysilicate per 100 produced a viable mixture. Although there tend to be few cracks in the cured gel, greater percentages of Silbond-40 significantly slows gel time. More alcohol results in a mixture which cracks and breaks upon curing due to a low solids content.The amount of water in solution has the most profound effect on the end product. While some water is necessary for polymerization; ethyl polysilicate is more sensitive to changes in water content than to ethyl silicate due to the fact that it has already been partially hydrolyzed and condensed. With too much water, an emulsion rather than a solution is formed. When this polymerizes, a white, sticky substance forms as flakes on exposed surfaces. Water content should be kept to a minimum. Once initiated, condensation will produce enough water to complete hydrolysis.A mixture of ethyl polysilicate and alcohol will not gel under laboratory conditions for a longer than nine-month period. Adding a catalyst immediately before use insures that while little polymerization has occurred before application (smaller molecules provide greater penetration), curing will occur soon after application.This study examined two acids: HF and HCl. Although HCl is more commonly used, HF was found to be more effective. HCl turns the silica solid yellow over time and produces soluble salts. While large quantities of HF will etch the silica, small amounts remain clear. A concentration of 1-1.5 parts 70% by weight HF (technical grade) per 100 takes between six hours and 3.5 days to gel and is clear with little cracking (little internal stress). The benefits of HF outweigh the possible human danger. These formulations are lower than the HF concentration in many masonry cleaners. HF will attract water from the substrate during hydrolysis. After curing, fluorine tends to bond tenaciously with calcium in the substrate.Model adobe bricks were consolidated with ProSoCo’s Conservare-OH and two different ethyl silicate-40 formulations (consolidated by immersion) and then tested. Although the Conservare OH appeared to permeate further, results suggest that the ethyl silicate-40 formulations are comparable to Conservare OH, and may prevent deterioration longer, wear differently and discolor the substrate less. Tests would have to be done on each specific clay to determine staining. The polysilicate had a slightly lower initial rate of absorption (following procedures in ASTM C67-9), which suggests some water repellency even after a month of curing.Since there is no ASTM test to simulate rain, a rain chamber was constructed. Samples were subjected to a maximum of 15 cycles of rain (four liters of water drizzled onto the samples over a four-minute period with a strike angle of 45o) and to heat (ten minutes under a heat lamp at 35o C). Unconsolidated samples failed quickly. Conservare OH samples survived the 15 cycles, but began to show deterioration after the seventh cycle. After the initial break through the consolidated zone, the unconsolidated material deteriorated preferentially. Both polysilicate formulations performed better: after 15 cycles, neither had any breaks in the consolidated layer, although they both showed some weathering and erosion around the corners.These results indicate that ethyl polysilicate can be used in a viable, cost-effective consolidant. The use of laboratory testing may not be conclusive proof of a consolidant’s efficacy, but it does allow a better understanding of how the consolidant works and how to alter the composition in the field to optimize the consolidant’s characteristics in the field. The next step for both these formulations is to be subjected to field work.Karen Mills, Norman Weiss, Columbia University, Program of Historic PreservationDEVELOPMENT OF A LABORATORY STANDARD ADOBESince 1994, Columbia University has been working on developing a viable laboratory adobe for the study of treatment oriented adobe conservation. The variability of historic adobe has made study of consolidants difficult. One can not test consolidants on enough samples to be statistically significant without endangering a great deal of historic material. Studies done on a specific adobe with additives particular to site may not be valid for adobes without those components. The development of a standard laboratory adobe solves both of these problems. A formula removed from the site provides an unlimited supply of identical bricks which can be treated and the results compared. A laboratory standard would limit the number of tests necessary on historic adobe while increasing the amount of data available to the conservator. The model can be modified to better represent the adobe at any site.Our model, based on generic modern and historic formulations as cited by McHenry and Clifton, is composed of 70% sand, 15% clay and 15% silt. In an effort to develop a universally reproducible model, we used commercial products. Several clays have been tried; the final choice was Kentucky OM4 because it represented a middle range of impurities. It is a mined ball clay which does have a different composition from clays taken from just below the ground, such as kaolin; one of the major differences being a lower firing point. Because adobe is unfired, the positive qualities (it produces a brick with a comparatively low initial absorption rate and comparatively high strength) of the Kentucky OM4 clay made it preferable to various red clays. Crystofil 400, a finely crushed glass, was used as a silt substitute.Drying method did not seem to have a great effect. Rather than allowing our adobe to air dry for a week, we use a 32o C oven for 24 hours.The laboratory adobe was subjected to various tests to determine physical properties. Initial rate of absorption (following ASTM C-69 standards) is very low, approximating high quality brick, but the bricks loose a good deal of both sand and clay particles. A rain chamber was set up to approximate alternating wet and dry conditions. Approximately 640 ml of water falling from a height of 45 cm hit each brick at a 45o angle over a four minute period. The wet adobe was dried for ten minutes under a heat lamp. The model bricks showed deterioration after a single cycle; on average, it took nine cycles to break or wear a hole through the sample.The adobe developed at Columbia will allow extended study of various consolidants under laboratory conditions to complement the studies currently being done in the field. Various components (such as clay type and additives) can be added or altered to mimic specific adobes while still providing a base for comparison. We would like to see wider use of this adobe and would enjoy discussion.Karen Mills, John Scott, Norman Weiss, Columbia University, Program of Historic Preservation EARTHEN ARCHITECTURE IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITESThe Getty Conservation Institute, as part of its long-term research on earthen structures, will be identifying critical factorsinvolved in the deterioration of historic earthen materials and structures at archaeological sites in order to develop specific solutions to conservation problems.This project will be designed and carried out as a cooperative effort with an international group of research partners who have had extensive experience in working with earthen architecture. The research project will study the physical and chemical processes responsible for significant degradation mechanisms. Laboratory studies will be carried out to characterize various types of earthen materials and to establish relationships among factors such as the composition, environment, physical properties and the stability of earthen materials. Laboratory-developed conservation procedures will be evaluated at selected field test sites. Treatments to be considered will include those that are minimally invasive and are consistent with maintaining the authenticity of the structure. Documentation of the research methodology, data obtained, and an evaluation of the results will be compiled and disseminated.For more information, contact Bill Ginell, Senior Scientist, The Getty Conservation Institute, 1200 Getty Center Drive, Suite 700, Los Angeles, CA 90049. Tel. 310-440-6262 E-mail: BGinell@Getty.eduPUBLICATIONSThe American Mosaic: Preserving A Nation’s Heritage originally published by US/ICOMOS for the 1987 ICOMOS General Assembly in Washington, DC, is back in print and now available from Wayne State University Press. Edited by Robert E. Stipe and Antoinette J. Lee, 360 pp., $19.95. To order: Wayne State University Press, The Leonard N. Simons Building, 4809 Woodward Avenue, Detroit, MI 48201-1309; call toll-free 1-800-WSU.READ (1-800-978-7323) or fax: 313-577-6131.NEWS OF MEMBERS AND FRIENDSDr. Madeline O. Robinson’s Photography exhibit, “Reflections of the Seasons Along the Blackstone River and Canal” was held at Riverbend Farm Visitor Center, Uxbridge, Massachusetts in August. Her essay on the Blackstone River Valley National Heritage corridor also appeared in the August edition (TICCIH Bulletin — 1997-3) of an industrial heritage newsletter published in Northampton, England by The N’hants English Training Partnership (NENE Northampton).US/ICOMOS Chairman Ann Webster Smith has nominated a new Publications committee to consist of William Chapman, Ron Greenberg and Stephen Dennis.After several years of service, Robert Page has resigned as co-Chair of the US/ICOMOS Specialized Committee on Historic Gardens and Landscapes. We thank him for the contributions he made to US/ICOMOS.As part of a World Monuments Fund program, Richard Pieper traveled to the Czech republic where he served as a conservator for the stabilization of the limestone bas-relief on the “Rendezvous,” an 1810 folly in the gardens between Valtice and Lednice Castles in Southern Moravia.Spencer Leineweber attended the meeting in Fiji, sponsored by the World Heritage Center, to discuss the identification of World Heritage Sites along the Pacific Rim and Polynesia.Robert Fitzgerald has returned to Illinois after completing his studies in Vienna, Austria.Marta de la Torre and Bill Sugaya attended the General Assembly of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in Evora, Portugal.Ana Mercedes Salazar, Director of the National Register of El Salvador, visited the office of US/ICOMOS. Her visit to the U.S. was hosted by USIA.Supported by a grant form the Kaplan Fund, Douglas Comer has been assisting in the mapping of the entire site of Petra in Jordan.NEW MEMBERS:US/ICOMOS welcomes Dr. David S. Whitley of California as a new member. Dr. Whitley brings to us a long involvement with ICOMOS’ International Scientific Committee on Rock Art, which is chaired by Dr. Jean Clottes of ICOMOS France.In his recent letter to US/ICOMOS, Whitley correctly pointed out that The United States has long ignored the conservation of our Rock Art heritage, which is unfortunate, as we have a tremendous wealth of rock art manifestations in this country.The tide may be turning, however. Working through The Society of American Archaeology (SAA), Whitley has been working to bolster the status of rock art research within that organization, and symposia and site management workshops have been conducted during the past few years. Recently, the SAA has also formed an informal Rock Art Interest Group, which has demonstrated broad concern for rock art heritage within the archaeological community.Tobi Brimsek, SAA Executive Director and ex-officio Board Member of US/ICOMOS reports that over 500 SAA members have already signed up. Among the initial goals of the group is the identification of the most endangered rock art sites in the United States. The list will be publicized at the SAA Annual Meeting in Seattle in March of 1998.US/ICOMOS looks forward to joining these important efforts by collaborating with the SAA, and Dr. Whitley and the ROCK ART INTEREST Group. US/ICOMOS members who would like to participate in Rock Art initiatives, should write or e-mail Gustavo Araoz at US/ICOMOS.US/ICOMOS also welcomes John Speweik of Illinois and Heather Euler of Pennsylvania to it ranks.VOLUNTEER SUPPORTUS/ICOMOS is grateful for the invaluable contributions of several dedicated volunteers: Moya B. King, Svetlana Popovic and Jody CabezasUS/ICOMOS BOARD OF TRUSTEESOfficers: Ann Webster Smith, Chair; Robert Wilburn, Vice Chair; Roy E. Graham, FAIA, Secretary; Arlene Fleming, Treasurer. Members: Sarah S. Boasberg, Adele Chatfield-Taylor, William S. Colburn, Henry Hoffstot, John T. Joyce, James P. Kiernan, Norman L. Koonce, FAIA, R. Randolph Langenbach, Spencer Leineweber, AIA, Margaret G.H. Mac Lean, Richard Pieper, Constance W. Ramirez, Peter H. Stott, Thomas Schmidt, Michael R. TaylorEx officio: Robert P. Bergman, American Association of Museums; David Roccosalva, American Institute of Architects; Darwina L. Neal, American Society of Landscape Architects; Mark Meister, Archaeological Institute of America; John C. Poppeliers, National Park Service; Peter Brink, National Trust for Historic Preservation; Francine C. Berkowitz, Smithsonian Institution; Tobi Brimsek, Society for American Archaeology; Maria P. Kouroupas, USIA; Pauline Saliga, Society of Architectural Historians; Elliott Carroll, past ICOMOS Vice President; John M. Fowler, immediate past ChairmanICOMOS OFFICERSAnn Webster Smith, ICOMOS Vice President; Hisashi B. Sugaya, Chair, ICOMOS International Committee on Cultural TourismUS/ICOMOS SPECIALIZED COMMITTEE CHAIRSHester A. Davis, Archaeological Heritage Management; A. Elena Charola and Blaine Cliver, Brick Masonry and Ceramics; Hugh C. Miller, FAIA, Cultural Tourism; Maribel Beas, Earthen Architecture; Ronald Lee Fleming and Raul Garcia, Historic Towns; Charles Birnbaum and Robert Page, Historic Landscapes; Stephen N. Dennis, Legislation; Roy Eugene Graham, Training; William Chapman, Vernacular Architecture; Hiroshi Daifuku, Wood.US/ICOMOS STAFFGustavo F. Araoz, AIA, Executive Director; Ellen M. Delage, Program Director;Accounting: Nonprofit Management ServicesUS/ICOMOS FELLOWS1983: Ernest A. Connally, Hiroshi Daifuku, Robert R. Garvey, Jr. †, Richard H. Howland, Robert Thayer †.1984: J. O. Brew †, Carl Feiss, FAIA, James Marston Fitch, Frederick Gutheim †.1985: Eduard F. Sekler.1986: Barclay Gibbs Jones, Robert E. Stipe.1987: William J. Murtagh, Paul N. Perrot, Ann Webster Smith.1988: Charles E. Peterson, FAIA.1989: Russell V. Keune, AIA, Terry B. Morton, Hon.AIA, W. Brown Morton III, Hon.AIA, John Poppeliers.1991: Robertson E. Collins, George Scheffer.1994: Elliott Carroll, FAIA, Hugh C. Miller, FAIA.1996 :Marvin Breckenridge Patterson, Mr. and Mrs. J. Bennett Johnston.CERTIFICATES OF SERVICE1991: Barbara Bowen, Randolph Kidder, Erin Muths.1992: Dorothy Carroll, M. Burton McVernon, Thomas Richards, Hiroshi Daifuku1993: Barbara Timken.ICOMOS INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEES: Archaeological Heritage Management* Photogrammetry Cultural Tourism* Rock Art Economics of Conservation Stained Glass Earthen Structures* Stone Historic Gardens and Sites* Structures Historic Towns* Training* Inventories* Underwater Cultural Heritage Legislation* Vernacular Architecture* Wood** Corresponding US/ICOMOS National Specialized CommitteesICOMOS NATIONAL COMMITTEESAlgeriaAngolaArgentinaAustraliaAustriaBelgiumBeninBoliviaBrazilHungaryBurkina FasoCameroonCanadaChili ChinaColombiaCosta RicaCroatiaCubaCyprusCzech Republic DenmarkDominican Rep. EcuadorEgyptEstoniaEthiopiaFinlandFranceGabonGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGreeceGuatemalaHaitiHondurasHungaryIndiaIndonesiaIrelandIsraelItalyIvory CoastJamaicaJapanJordanKorea, P.D.RLatviaLebanonLithuaniaLuxembourgMacedoniaMalawiMali MaltaMauritaniaMexicoNetherlandsNew ZealandNorwayPakistanPanamaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPolandPortugalRomaniaRussiaSalvadorSenegalSlovakiaSloveniaSouth AfricaSpainSri LankaSwedenSwitzerlandTanzaniaThailandTunisiaTurkeyUkraineUKUruguayUSAVenezuelaZaire ZambiaZimbabwe US/ICOMOS MISSION STATEMENTUS/ICOMOS fosters heritage conservation and historic preservation at the national and international levels through education and training, international exchange of people and information, technical assistance, documentation, advocacy and other activities consistent with the goals of ICOMOS and through collaboration with other organizations.US/ICOMOS membership includes professionals, practitioners, supporters and organizations committed to the protection, preservation and conservation of the world’s cultural heritage. US/ICOMOS is the U.S. National Committee of the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), the international nongovernmental organization dedicated to the preservation and conservation of the world’s heritage.US/ICOMOS NEWSLETTERThe US/ICOMOS Newsletter is published by US/ICOMOS six times a year. Members are encouraged to submit articles, illustrations and editorial items for inclusion in the Newsletter. Contributors are solely responsible for the facts and opinions stated herein, and publication in this Newsletter does not constitute an official endorsement by US/ICOMOS.Please send submissions and any inquiries to the Editor, US/ICOMOS Newsletter, 401 F Street, NW, Room 331, Washington, DC 20001-2728.This newsletter has been financed in part with Federal funds from the National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. However, the contents and opinions do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of the Interior.