In this Newsletter** Domestic Threat to World heritage** World Heritage Briefs** ICOMOS Role in the Protection of World Heritage Cities** World Heritage Newsletter** 500 Web Sites on World Heritage Cities** US/UK Countryside Exchange Team Visits Ironbridge Gorge** Highest Award to Ernest Allen Connally** 1996 US/ICOMOS International Summer Intern Program** Summer Field School in Cambodia** Announcements** CalendarDOMESTIC THREAT TO WORLD HERITAGELETTER FROM THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTORThe past ten years brought about unimaginable and momentous changes in our world, leaving many disoriented and wondering how and why we got to this strange “here” that is so unrecognizable. While some welcome these changes and view them as part of the normal evolution of humanity, others are frightened by the uncertainty and look for ways to revert to past conditions. In the United States, a great part of our national soul-searching is focused on our role as a country and as a people in the new world order still emerging from the collapse of the Soviet Bloc. For some, a perceived greater obligation towards the planet’s human community and the accelerating globalization of the economy and even of culture means the dilution, perhaps collapse of our traditional culture and way of life. On the other extreme, others see globalization as a reaffirmation of the common destiny of the human race and an opportunity to bring about peace though universal understanding. Regardless of where one sits in this broad spectrum, the fact is that the pains associated with this often convulsive transition are felt by all sides.In our search for reassurance, all socio-political institutions and processes have been thrown into question, and the historic preservation movement is no exception: we have lost a consensus on public funding for the humanities, on designation of heritage resources, on managing a multi-cultural heritage, on public rights to cultural property, etc. While these are expected topics of controversy, the one that took the preservation community by surprise were the efforts to subvert the participation of the United States in the World Heritage Convention. This is doubly ironic since the concept of a world heritage convention was originally advanced by a Republican administration of the United States, and because our own Ernest Allen Connally, who was instrumental in its early structuring, was honored this year with the Gazzola Prize for his significant contribution to international preservation and to the Convention.Long perceived as a mom-and-apple-pie international treaty because of its benign intent to protect the world’s most important heritage sites, the World Heritage Convention is now being depicted in some quarters as a major threat to our national sovereignty, claiming that the World Heritage and the UNESCO Biosphere network of sites form part of a United Nations scheme for world domination. While such interpretation sounds risible to those who have worked for World Heritage principles, it was not too far-fetched for two Congressmen to propose separate pieces of legislation to avert such plots in both the House and the Senate during the last Congress. The most serious of the two, the one by Representative Young of Alaska, actually got a majority of votes, and had it not been for special procedures requiring 2/3 of the votes, it would have gone to the President for signature or veto.While the text of the legislation itself transferred power to nominate public properties from the Secretary of Interior to Congress, some of the xenophobic motivations behind the Bill came out in their most brutal form during the formal hearings last September on Capitol Hill, particularly during questioning, when some Congresspersons amply articulated the hidden fears of lost sovereignty and mistrust of the United Nations and foreigners in general. The testimony of Nina Sibal, Director of UNESCO’s New York Office, expansively covered the opposing testimonies sent by numerous preservation and conservation organizations, disarming all claims about lost national sovereignty and other devious intents on the part of the United Nations or any of its agencies.While the xenophobic trend is real and must be taken into consideration, a more deeply-embedded source of opposition lies in our traditional national belief in unbounded property rights. To a large degree, the tremors that we are feeling now may be traced directly to the placing of Yellowstone in the List of World Heritage in Danger a year ago, which led to curtailed important and lucrative interests in the New World Mine in the vicinity of the Park. But a more pressing lesson that the conservation community needs to learn from the recent past is that it must go beyond paying mere lip service to our principle of public participation to proactively implementing it. Repeated testimony brought out the lack of public participation in the decision making processes at Yellowstone, Carlsbad, and the Ozarks on topics that deeply affect the future of the inhabitants around them. In an atmosphere of such hostility, the preservation community cannot afford accusations (especially if they are partially valid) that our work is part of a plot þ an international plot þ to limit the use and exploitation of our resources.We also need to become more coherent, precise and articulate when we take our case to the public. Many testified that they could not understand how the delegation for the World Heritage Center could assess the dangers to Yellowstone within a three-day visit when a group of professionals working on the Environmental Impact Statement had not been yet able to reach a conclusion after three years of investigations. In view of uncontrolled tourism being one of the listed threats at Yellowstone, a question arose and remained unanswered about the repeated benefit of enhanced tourist visitation as a major rationale for inclusion in the World Heritage List.Another shock wave may be on its way soon, with the likely acceptance of Japan’s nomination of the Hiroshima Dome by the World Heritage Committee at its annual meeting in Mérida, Mexico, in December. As a mature nation we must accept this nomination along with that of Auschwitz as powerful reminders of the destructive powers of the human race, and not as a statement of the painful political conflicts that afflicted our parents and grandparents a generation ago.US/ICOMOS remains equally committed to the World Heritage Convention as well as to national sovereignty, a principle that has always been upheld by the Convention. As a principal advisor to UNESCO on listing cultural properties, ICOMOS and all its National Committees have the important duty of creating a greater awareness of the universal values that are incorporated in the World Heritage List. We are fortunate in the United States to have many cultural sites that are central to understanding the world that we live in. US/ICOMOS will continue to foster the identification and nomination of those sites to the List, and to make sure that that portion of our heritage that has outstanding universal value will find its rightful place among its peers from all other lands. Gustavo F. Araoz, AIAWORLD HERITAGE BRIEFS * The United Kingdom is pioneering the exploration of the debate over the relationship between cultural heritage and human rights, and its corollaries, World Heritage and local community rights and the notion of democratic accountability and constituency in a field dominated by specialists and appointed agencies. The role of local authorities in the protection of cultural heritage has yet to be fully defined. It is a difficult one, concerned not only with national responsibilities under the World Heritage Convention, but also the relationship between different levels of government and different strata of legislation. There are 14 World Heritage Sites in the UK and 34 local authorities are involved in the day-to-day management of them. After a preliminary meeting to explore management issues and working relationships, the U.K. Local Authority World Heritage Forum on the Management of the Sites was established. The Forum seeks to promote the role of local authorities in the management of World Heritage Sites. Within the Forum itself, local authorities are encouraged to exchange experiences and information. The group meets four times a year, hosted by a different authority each time and including a presentation about the local World Heritage site at each meeting. In this way, delegates visit a wide range of sites and learn about the management problems faced by each local authority. Other agenda items have included updates on planning law affecting sites, discussions about access to funding, promotion of the sites and technical issues such as development of management plans and consideration of buffer zones and statutory planning policies. * World Heritage Bureau Meeting, Paris 24-29 June. The regular mid-year meeting of the World Heritage Bureau was held at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris, June 24-29, attended by the seven Bureau members and by 32 observing States Parties. The Bureau recommended to the Committee the inscription of 26 new properties to the World Heritage List, referred 14 back to States Parties for more information, and deferred 12 for additional work by the State Party concerned. (The final decision on nominations and referrals will be made by the Committee at its annual meeting in Mérida, Mexico, December 2-7.) Despite attempts by the Committee to enhance the representativity of the List and correct its geographic imbalance, cultural heritage nominations from Europe continue to be more numerous than nominations from other regions of the World. The Bureau also heard a report on the outcome of a fact-finding mission to the Galápagos in June (see story below). The six-day meeting examined draft resolutions on conservation monitoring and reporting, to be presented to both the General Assembly of States Parties and the UNESCO General Conference. US/ICOMOS MISSION STATEMENTUS/ICOMOS fosters heritage conservation and historic preservation at the national and international levels through education and training, international exchange of people and information, technical assistance, documentation, advocacy and other activities consistent with the goals of ICOMOS and through collaboration with other organizations.US/ICOMOS membership includes professionals, practitioners, supporters and organizations committed to the protection, preservation and conservation of the world’s cultural heritage. US/ICOMOS is the U.S. National Committee of the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), the international nongov- ernmental organization dedicated to the preservation and conservation of the world’s heritage.US/ICOMOS NEWSLETTERThe US/ICOMOS Newsletter is published by US/ICOMOS six times per year as a benefit of membership. Members are urged to submit brief articles with illustrations and editorial items for inclusion in the Newsletter. Materials will be edited by US/ICOMOS as appropriate. There are no submission deadlines; items will be used as space and time permit.Contributors are solely responsible for the facts and opinions stated herein, and publication in this Newsletter does not constitute an official endorsement by US/ICOMOS.Please send submissions and any inquiries to the Editor, US/ICOMOS Newsletter, 1600 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20006.This newsletter has been financed in part with Federal funds from the National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. However, the contents and opinions do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of the Interior. * Global Strategy Meeting, Addis Ababa, 29 July- 1 August. The second sub-regional meeting to improve the representativity of the World Heritage List was held in Addis Ababa at the end of July and concerned Djibouti, Egypt, Eritreia, Ethiopia, Libya, Niger, Uganda, Sudan and Chad. The group of about 30 participants included representatives both from States Parties and from those States which had not yet ratified the Convention. The meeting was organized around 4 themes: African heritage in terms of the Convention; archaeological heritage; the heritage of human settlements and living cultures; and religious places, technical sites and historic routes in World Heritage. Among the topics discussed, the meeting underlined the total interrelationship of nature and culture in African societies and the representation of spiritual and sacred heritage through physical elements. Participants also looked closely at the concepts of cultural landscapes and trade routes in Africa. Many of these themes were welcomed by the participants, who felt that they gave new relevance to the Convention among African States. The experts promised to look closely at the tentative lists in their own countries for ways of incorporating these themes and to continue to work together on a sub-regional basis. * New National Legislation Sought for Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. In response to the concern expressed by the World Heritage Committee and at the invitation of the Ecuadorian government, the Committee Chairman, the Director of the World Heritage Centre and technical advisors visited the archipelago in June to discuss pressures on the island ecosystem and possible remedial measures. The mission report, endorsed by the World Heritage Bureau, urged the adoption of special legislation by the Ecuadorian parliament to address: a) immigration from the mainland to the archipelago; b) control over the introduction of alien species to the islands; c) long-term legal protection for marine resources; and d) strong financial support and mandate for the Galápagos National Park Service in the islands. Although some of these issues were addressed in a bill introduced by the last Parliament, it was vetoed in September by President Ortiz for not fully addressing the needs of the islands. A new bill is expected. * First African World Heritage Youth Forum. The First African World Heritage Youth Forum took place 18 – 24 September in Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe, gathering students and teachers from 17 countries to discuss World Heritage issues. This was the third World Heritage Youth Forum since the launch of UNESCO’s project, Young People’s Participation in World Heritage Preservation and Promotion, in 1994. Sponsored by Rhöne-Poulenc Foundation and NORAD, the Fora’s objective is to bring young people together with decision-makers, heritage and conservation experts in order to give them an active role in heritage conservation. Teachers came together to discuss teaching methods and contributed to the production of UNESCO’s World Heritage Education Kit which will be distributed to schools worldwide in 1997. In the surroundings of the World Heritage site Victoria Falls/Mosi-oa-Tunya, students discovered the richness of African culture and conducted an environmental impact study on tourism in the area. Their work on World Heritage will continue through their schools which are part of UNESCO’s Associated Schools Project Network. * Subregional Seminar for the Training of Site Managers of World Heritage sites and Biosphere Reserves in Francophone Africa, 29 September – 5 October, Tapoa, Niger. In a five-day meeting, 35 site managers, representatives from UNESCO, ICOMOS and IUCN discussed natural and cultural heritage in the West African context, using case studies from Biosphere Reserves and World Heritage sites from the region. In addition, as requested by the 20th session of the World Heritage Bureau, the question of the application of World Heritage criteria for the “W” National Park on the World Heritage List was discussed and the management of the site including parts in Burkina Faso and Benin. The training component consisted also of the new developments in the implementation of the World Heritage Convention (Global Strategy for both cultural and natural heritage, cultural landscapes, etc.). The seminar resulted in 13 recommendations, including specific recommendations for two sites included on the List of the World Heritage in Danger; and a recommendation that new technology and information is important for the protection of sites. A report will be presented to the outgoing World Heritage Bureau when it meets in Mérida, Mexico, 29-30 November. * Stonehenge Virtual Reality Model available on the Internet. On the eve of the summer solstice, English Heritage and the Intel Corporation released a three-dimensional model of the World Heritage site of Stonehenge to millions of viewers around the world via the Internet. According to the project partners, PC computer users around the world can explore a scientifically accurate, 3D model of the site, in any one of ten different eras, from 8500 BC to 2000 AD. Sir Jocelyn Stevens, Chairman of English Heritage, said, “It is extremely exciting that from today, high-tech tourists from around the world can visit Stonehenge on the Internet to see and study the development of one of the world’s oldest and least understood prehistoric sites.” The Internet address for the Virtual Reality model is: http://connectedpc.com/cpc/ecs/Stonehenge/ * Belgium’s ratification of the Convention took effect on October 24th. There are now 147 States Parties which have ratified the convention. ICOMOS ROLE IN THE PROTECTION OF WORLD HERITAGE CITIESThe Third International Symposium of World Heritage Cities, and the Second General Assembly of the Organization of World Heritage Cities, was held in Bergen, Norway, from June 28-30, 1996. The organization consolidated its position among international nongovernmental organizations through the adoption of the Bergen Protocol on communications and relations among cities of the Organization of World Heritage Cities (OWHC), adopted unanimously by the 65 city representatives present at the session. The protocol formalizes the intent and desire of major international institutions to cooperate in the protection and the improved management of historic cities, and defines the role and the nature of the responsibilities of each institution: UNESCO, the World Heritage Centre, ICCROM, Council of Europe and ICOMOS. The Bergen Protocol was witnessed by the Norwegian Minister of Development, the Under-Secretary General of the United Nations and Special Representative of UN Secretary-General for Public Affairs, the Getty Grant Program and the Aga Khan Trust for Culture. The Protocol states that, “For its part the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) undertakes to: * Support the OWHC in its efforts to obtain all information necessary for the proper development of its data bank; Use its network of professionals, on the one hand, to gather and update this information when necessary and, on the other hand, to assist the cities in developing appropriate management tools for the conservation of their heritage; * Serve as an intermediate between international experts in conservation, the partner organizations of the OWHC and the OWHC itself in order that the scientific knowledge necessary for the conservation of World Heritage Sites be easily accessible to the cities; * Involve the OWHC in the reflections that its committees and members could lead in order to develop conservation doctrine as well as knowledge and techniques relevant to the conservation of historic urban centers; * Share with the OWHC and its member cities the results, benefits and opportunities associated with the current Blue Shield disaster preparedness initiative led by ICOMOS, the International Council of Museums (ICOM), ICCROM and UNESCO.” WORLD HERITAGE NEWSLETTERThe WORLD HERITAGE NEWSLETTER, published by the World Heritage Centre, has been revised and reformatted. Currently a quarterly publication, the new publication will appear monthly. It will be distributed both in print form and by electronic mail. The electronic version is being carried by a mailing list, WHNEWS. US/ICOMOS member and Chair of the US/ICOMOS Committee on Communications, Information and Technology, Peter H. Stott, is developing this project for the World Heritage Centre.WHNEWS is also a discussion group, meaning that messages may also be sent by subscribers for distribution to all other subscribers. The list will be moderated, meaning that messages sent to the list will be compiled by the Newsletter editor before being resent to the list via e-mail. Messages sent to the list will be compiled and redistributed to everyone on the electronic subscription list. While the Newsletter will be distributed once a month in print and via WHNEWS, it is anticipated that news and messages to the list will be issued on a weekly or bi-monthly basis, depending on the volume of mail. Selected messages to the list will also be carried in the monthly newsletter.WHNEWS and the Newsletter will also provide an opportunity for Sites, States Parties, and other organizations to announce events and other news to both the World Heritage Centre and to other World Heritage sites.To send news, comments, or questions to the list for public redistribution, write to WHNEWS@unesco.org. Individual queries to the editor should go to email@example.com. Contents of the World Heritage Newsletter, Number 12, October 1996: 1. An Open Letter to the World Heritage Community 2. Nordic World Heritage Network meets in Stockholm 3. Managing the Rock Carvings in Tanum 4. Report from the Field: Everglades National Park, Two Anniversaries 5. Electronic Mailing List, WHNEWS@unesco.org 6. Brief Notes: World Heritage Events and News 7. Advisory Body: ICOMOS 8. CalendarIf you wish to receive the electronic version, WHNEWS, send an e-mail message to firstname.lastname@example.org . In the body of the text, type the words “subscribe whnews.” You will shortly receive an automatic acknowledgement indicating that you have been added to the subscription list. (To unsubscribe, send a message to the same address with the message “unsubscribe whnews”.) 500 WEB SITES ON WORLD HERITAGE CITIESby Michel Bonnette, Director of Research and Development, Organization of World Heritage Cities (OWHC) (reprinted with permission from the OWHC Newsletter, Number 7, August 1996)The massive network of computers that makes up the Internet is within reach of anyone who has a computer and a modem connected to an Internet server by telephone line. While the number of servers per 1,000 inhabitants varies markedly from one country to the next, e.g., there are 22 in Finland as against two in France and 0.5 in Croatia, most countries now have access to this technology. The problems facing those countries with more limited access centre on the long distance charges borne by a user in a small town who relies on a server that is often located in the capital or at least the nearest university, and the shortage of individuals who master Internet technology. Access to the Internet enables international organizations and individuals alike to avail themselves of electronic mail (no long distance charges and very quick), subscriptions to electronic mailing lists, the consultation and capture of information available on the World Wide Web, and participation in worldwide discussion groups on specialized topics.With a view to ensuring worldwide exposure to OWHC projects and the cultural traits of historic cities, the General Secretariat has developed its own Web site, at the following address: http://www.ovpm.org . The site is a multilingual virtual library devoted to the OWHC and World Heritage Cities. It also provides links to other Web sites the world over devoted to cities or partner organizations. The OWHC site also offers a city directory and the Management Guide published in 1991 in conjunction with the Quebec City symposium.To date, the General Secretariat has established nearly 500 links between its site and Web sites that present virtually all World Heritage Cities. Most of the sites have been developed by national tourism ministries and travel agencies. They are presented above all in English and Spanish, but also in French, Japanese, Hebrew, Italian, Finnish, German, Czech and Korean. Only 15 of the sites are the property of a city or urban community. It is essential that World Heritage Cities be aware of the sites that concern them and, if need be, that they contact the site’s editor to correct factual errors or negative images. In the coming weeks, each city will receive from the General Secretariat the addresses of Web sites that concern it, along with a suggested table of contents for the elaboration of a municipal Web site. US/UK COUNTRYSIDE EXCHANGE TEAM VISITS IRONBRIDGE GORGE WORLD HERITAGE SITESeven participants of the US/UK Countryside Exchange took part in a case study focused on the Ironbridge Gorge World Heritage site. They were asked to provide an independent, objective overview of issues and principal themes relating to area management. The team was assembled at the request of an inter-agency group representing principal management organizations in Ironbridge Gorge who are developing a management plan for the World Heritage Site. Team members, 3 U.S. and 4 British, came from different backgrounds including park management, industrial history, visitor education, regional planning, community services, ecology and archaeology. US/ICOMOS member Lawrence Belli was on the team. Two public meetings were held with local people in addition to meetings held with several area managers and technical specialists. At the end of the study a written report was presented to the interagency group and at a public meeting open to all area residents. Recommendations centered on the need for integrated management of the world heritage site with an expanded role for the interagency group; more emphasis on the cultural landscape of the area with a central interpretive theme based upon the interrelation of the natural and historical resources there; and a public involvement recommendation to help communicate the planning process and planning issues to area residents.Ironbridge Gorge was the first World Heritage site designated in the United Kingdom. The site consists of a large area of the Severn River, the surrounding gorge and the communities of Ironbridge, Coalbrookdale, Coalport and Brosley. Ironbridge Gorge is internationally known as the birthplace of the industrial revolution. Here in 1709 Abraham Darby succeeded in smelting iron with coke and established extensive iron manufacturing works based upon the natural resources of the area. Then in 1779 the first entirely iron bridge was designed and built across the Severn River in the same area.The US/UK Countryside Exchange started in 1986 between the U.S. National Park Service and the English Countryside Commission. The nonprofit North American Countryside Exchange was established in 1989 with a UK counterpart at Manchester Metropolitan University. Since then participants come from the US, UK and Canada. The goal of these exchanges is to provide professionals opportunities to meet with their counterparts and work intensively on a single project for about one week to help a local sponsor on a resource- related issue. ICOMOS IN SOFIA:MORE THAN 600 ICOMOS MEMBERS ATTEND BULGARIAN GENERAL ASSEMBLY AND SYMPOSIUMDuring October, ICOMOS members from 75 countries met in Sofia, Bulgaria, for the organization’s triennial General Assembly. Among those present were representatives from new or reconstituted ICOMOS National Committees in Benin, China, Indonesia, Ireland, Lithuania, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Mali, Pakistan, Senegal and Zimbabwe. Bulgarian ICOMOS Chairman Todor Krestev presided over opening sessions where participants were welcomed by Zhelyu Zhelev, President of Bulgaria, and by Ivan Marazov, Bulgaria’s Minister of Culture. The Bulgarian Committee proved a warm and friendly atmosphere for, in Professor Krestev’s words, “an intellectual forum that would promote ideas, exchange of experience and alternatives for the future and give expression of the inner spiritual power of our organization, ICOMOS.”As a part of the General Assembly’s opening ceremonies, international preservation’s highest honor, the Gazzola Prize, was awarded to Ernest Allen Connally (USA), former Secretary General of ICOMOS and former chairman of US/ICOMOS. Ann Webster Smith, current US/ICOMOS chairman, received the award on Dr. Connally’s behalf and, in accepting it, spoke of his high personal and professional regard for Piero Gazzola, ICOMOS’ first president, for whom the award is named.The U.S. National Committee was third in number of participants with 18, exceeded only by Australia (many of whose delegation came by plane, sailboat and then train to the General Assembly) and Bulgaria.An integral part of the General Assembly was the three-day symposium on “Heritage and Social Change” which included tracks on Ethics and Philosophy, Politics and Economics, and Methodologies and Techniques. Several US/ICOMOS members were among the 120 who were invited to deliver papers during the symposium. They were Steade Craigo, Sacramento, CA, who spoke on “Affordable Housing in Historic Buildings: a nexus of Societal Needs and Conservation Ethics;” William J. Murtagh, Alexandria, VA, “Do you write or do you speak? A Commentary on the Preservation Values of Oral Cultures;” Stephen Dennis, Washington, DC, “Local Self-Determination for Cultural Monuments: A United States Model with Considerable Flexibility;” and Gunny Harboe, Chicago, IL, “The Issue of Authenticity in Restoring Nineteenth-Century Landmark Office Buildings.” During the course of the symposium, participants were taken to visit three of Bulgaria’s important cultural sites: Plovdiv, the Monastery of Rila and Koprivchitsa, each of which illustrated various aspects of the Symposium in addition to giving participants an opportunity to understand the value of Bulgaria’s heritage and the work that was being done to protect and preserve that heritage.ICOMOS officers and Executive Committee for the 1996-1999 triennium were elected. ICOMOS President Roland Silva (Sri Lanka) and Treasurer General Jan Jessurun (Netherlands) were both elected to third terms. Jean-Louis Luxen (Belgium) was elected to a second term as Secretary General. Ann Webster Smith (USA) was elected to one of five vice presidential posts along with Mamadou Berthe (Senegal) Esteban Prieto (Dominican Republic), Joseph Phares (Lebanon), and Christiane Schmuckle-Mollard (France). Elected members of the Executive Committee will be Carmen Anon Feliu (Spain), Maria de la Nieves Arias Incolla (Argentina), Dinu Bumbaru (Canada), Sheridan Burke (Australia), Sherban Cantacuzino (UK), Margaretha Ehrstrom (Finland), Todor Krestev (Bulgaria), Saleh Lamei (Egypt), Francisco Javier Lopez Morales (Mexico), Dawson Munjeri (Zimbabwe), Yukio Nishimura (Japan) and Giora Solar (Israel).Participants in the General Assembly adopted a number of resolutions. Among others relating to the work of ICOMOS was one urging that study of the concept of authenticity be extended to include the heritage of Africa, that of the Islamic-Arab world, and that of Asia-Oceania. Another resolution called on ICOMOS to develop explicit English, French and Spanish definitions for the terms used in connection with the protection of the cultural heritage. The Assembly in another resolution adopted there called for a revision of the Charter on Cultural Tourism. Several resolutions addressed concerns about threats to the heritage in certain regions. One of these called on the Bulgarian government, in this time of change, to guarantee the preservation of the heritage whatever its ownership. Another expressed concern about the heritage in those countries which had been part of Yugoslavia. Concern was expressed about the situation at the Russian World Heritage site of Kizhi Pogost. Another resolution condemned strongly the recent interference with the Titanic site and the commercial exploitation that was planned in conjunction with that venture. In terms of ICOMOS’ relations with other partners, the General Assembly supported the ICOMOS commitment to the Blue Shield concept and the work of the International Committee of the Blue Shield and urged national and international scientific committees to join in the Blue Shield effort.Finally, the General Assembly accepted the invitation of Carlos Flores Marini, chairman of ICOMOS Mexico to hold its next General Assembly, 11-17 October 1999, in Mexico. In addition to ICOMOS business meetings, this Twelfth General Assembly will bring together ICOMOS members and an international reunion of ICOMOS International Scientific Committees. There will be four meeting places, each of which will address the work of three or four of the ICOMOS international committees. Mexico City will be the focus for the committees on Archaeological Heritage Management, Inventories and Documentation, Mural Painting and 20th Century Architecture. Guanajuato will be the meeting place for the committees on Industrial Heritage and Architecture, Cultural Landscapes and Cultural Tourism. Morelia will serve as the center for discussion of the work of the committees on Earthen Architecture, Wood, Stone, and Vernacular Architecture. And Guadalajara will host the committees on Legislation and Regulations, Professional Training and Youth and Heritage and Historic Towns. HIGHEST INTERNATIONAL PRESERVATION AWARD TO ERNEST ALLEN CONNALLYErnest Allen Connally of Alexandria, Virginia, has been named the recipient of the Gazzola Prize, the highest honor in international preservation given for outstanding achievement in the conservation of historic monuments, groups of buildings and sites. Awarded triennially by the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), Dr. Connally’s designation as the recipient of the award was announced at the organization’s 11th General Assembly in Sofia, Bulgaria. The Gazzola Prize was established in 1980 in memory of Piero Gazzola (1908-1979), first president of ICOMOS. Ernest Allen Connally is the first U.S. member to receive this distinction and was chosen for the honor by an international panel of experts headed by Professor Nobuo Ito of Japan.The Gazzola Prize, a large medal, was accompanied by a citation which read: Dr. Ernest Allen Connally, architect and art historian, made a great contribution in his country, the United States. He spent 15 years as an academic during which he was a professor of architectural history. In 1966 when the National Park Service created the Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, he was invited to run that office and its important new responsibilities. He directed the development of a network of the officers in the United States. Owing to his efforts, many historic places were listed and preserved. Dr. Connally has also been involved in international cultural affairs. He became a member of US/ICOMOS in 1967 and was elected to its Presidency in 1975. The same year, he was also elected as the second ICOMOS Secretary General at the General Assembly in Rothenburg, a post in which he served for two terms until 1981. He made every effort to reinforce the Secretariat of ICOMOS, by sending experienced persons to the post of Director and by arranging special subventions. In the years of his tenure, ICOMOS was greatly consolidated and increased its effectiveness as an international organization. In 1975, when the World Heritage Convention entered into force, Dr. Connally took the initiative in defining and formulating the functional roles of ICOMOS, IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) and ICCROM (International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property, Rome) and in developing the criteria and procedures for the implementation of the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger. In 1981 Dr. Connally was named Honorary Member of ICOMOS. Her received the two highest awards in preservation in the United States and was honored as Officier de l’Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the French Government in 1986. Thus, Dr. Connally is recognized both nationally and internationally for his achievements in terms of the conservation of historic sites, structures and districts, for his distinguished contributions to the practice of conservation and historic preservation in the United States, and for his international role, especially as the Secretary General of ICOMOS during six years (1975-1981) and as a leading expert for the implementation of the World Heritage Convention. By his leadership, his participation, his conceptual talents, his scholarship and his managerial and administrative skills, he has made unique contributions to conservation and historic preservation. He is eminently qualified to receive the highest honor of ICOMOS, the Gazzola Prize. Prior to Dr. Connally’s receipt of the award and since its establishment in 1980, there have been five recipients of the Gazzola Prize. They were Jean Trouvelot (France) 1981, Stanislaw Lorentz (Poland) 1984, Masaru Sekino (Japan) 1987, Gertrude Tripp (Austria) 1990, Sir Bernard Feilden (United Kingdom) 1993.In announcing the award, the ICOMOS selection panel commented: As the recipient of the 1996 Gazzola Prize, Dr. Ernest Allen Connally brings distinction to himself and honor to the field of conservation and historic preservation in the United States. 1996 US/ICOMOS INTERNATIONAL SUMMER INTERN PROGRAMOn Wednesday, August 28, after three months on site, the 1996 US/ICOMOS Summer Interns returned to Washington for the final debriefing program. An all-day open program was scheduled so that members, supporters and other interested professionals could sit-in for all or some of the presentations to get a clearer picture of the nature of the internships and the high quality work accomplished by the young professionals. The diversity of the projects and the amazing ingenuity of the interns to develop their interests and explore the professional possibilities of their host country made for fascinating presentations. This year, 20 interns from 12 countries were selected for internships: Australia, P.R. China, Croatia, Denmark, Ghana, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Turkey, UK, USA.For twelve years, this unique program has offered young preservationists around the world the opportunity to learn first-hand about the technical methods and the institutional and legal tools that enable a nation to preserve its cultural heritage. The US/ICOMOS International Summer Intern Program in historic preservation extends the network of education, international exchange and understanding to the next generation of preservation professionals. The program supplements formal graduate curriculum in architecture, conservation, architectural history, historic preservation, landscape architecture, archaeology, interpretation, museum studies and related fields by providing participants with the unique opportunity to undertake a practical, working internship abroad. It is the only international internship exchange in this field.The program benefits the global community by insuring the continuing dialogue between nations and cultural groups. Interns establish working relationships that influence an entire professional lifetime.Planning must begin now for 1997. US/ICOMOS is looking for internship positions, here and abroad, in public and private agencies. Projects reflect the range of disciplines that make up the field of historic preservation: survey and documentation, historic structure reports; condition assessment reports; maintenance schedules; archival research projects and technical bibliographic research; projects centered on historic buildings and engineering structures, religious and vernacular architecture, landscapes and archaeological sites.US/ICOMOS organizes and conducts recruitment, selection, orientation and final program, all administrative matters from visas to medical insurance and stipend payments. Projects are defined by the host institution, and supervised by the professional staff. Institutions have final approval of interns selected for their projects.Since the pilot year in 1984, interns were placed in the U.S. with agencies and divisions of the National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Through the Smithsonian Institution, US/ICOMOS obtained access to J-1 visas for nonfederal positions, and the program expanded to the private, nonprofit sector. The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, The Henry Ford Estate and Historic Charleston Foundation participated in 1996.A printed report on the 1995-1996 programs is being produced thanks to the generous support of the National Center for Preservation Technology and Training (NCPTT), National Park Service. To receive a copy and for information on the organization of the program and the advantages and cost of hosting an intern, contact Ellen Delage, Program Director, at 202-842-1862, e-mail: email@example.com SUMMER FIELD SCHOOL IN CAMBODIACambodia is a country still emerging from nearly 20 years of civil war, invasion and political turmoil. Its professional class, including architects, archaeologists and historians was nearly all lost during that tumultuous period. Regaining some level of technical competence, especially in the area of historic preservation and documentation techniques for historic buildings, has been one of the priorities for the University of Hawai’i’s multifaceted cooperative training program.In 1996 the University’s first architectural recording field school þ following upon two years of successful archaeological field schools (see CRM Volume 19, Number 3, 1996) þ was held in the historic capital city of Phnom Penh, a city of approximately 1 million people located in the south central part of Cambodia. Headed by University of Hawai’i faculty members William Chapman (Department of American Studies and Director of the Historic Preservation Program) and Spencer Leineweber (School of Architecture), the 1996 program provided instruction for 16 Cambodian and 9 U.S. students in architecture, planning, Southeast Asian studies and historic preservation. Funded by a generous award from the Asia Cultural Council and the U.S. Information Service, the program was carried out in cooperation with the Royal University of Fine Arts in Phnom Penh and had the cooperation of the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism and the Ministry of Culture of the Kingdom of Cambodia.The 1996 summer field school was intended to fill a significant gap in the present curriculum of the Royal University. Founded in 1965, essentially as an outgrowth of the earlier Ecole des Beaux Arts, the University of Fine Arts provides instruction in architecture, planning, painting, sculpture, dance, music and archaeology. Instruction in architecture has only recently been reinstated þ the first class graduated in 1995.Historic preservation does not figure at all in the present curriculum. There is little formal instruction in architectural history or urban design. Most significantly, there has been no instruction in or regular program in architectural recording, a subject generally considered as the foundation for other historic preservation-related work. The summer field school, therefore, helped to fill this void.The program focused on the traditional and historic architecture of Phnom Penh and Southeast Asia generally. Students were introduced to basic methods used in the survey and documentation of historic architecture and to basic principles of new design in historic contexts. The program included instruction in mapping, architectural terminology, photography, measured drawing techniques and drafting. Professor Leineweber conducted a special week-long exercise on urban design in historic contexts. The U.S. students also participated in a preliminary tour conducted by Professor Chapman in Thailand, visiting historic sites in Bangkok and making a day-long excursion to the ancient city of Ayutthaya. They also had an opportunity to travel to the historic site of Angkor in northern Cambodia as a final excursion.Probably the strongest feature of the program was the day-to-day interaction of Cambodian and U.S. students. This was an explicit aim of the project, with the hope to break down barriers between participants from various backgrounds. Students worked together on teams usually consisting of two Cambodians and one U.S. student. U.S. and Cambodian students went on excursions together, shared meals and visited one another frequently. Cambodians invited US. students to their homes, introduced them to Cambodian food and taught them some Cambodian language.Up to now most of the instruction in architectural history at the University of Fine Arts has focussed on the ancient Khmer legacy. This is certainly a profoundly significant heritage, and there is much more research required in the area of Khmer civilization, including Khmer architecture. However, much else has tended to be overlooked. This has been especially true of colonial architecture, including many architecturally significant buildings designed during the period of the French Protectorate (1863-1953), as well as many lesser buildings.Most significant among this lesser architecture are the virtually thousands of shophouses built in Phnom Penh between approximately 1890 and 1950. Comprised of shop fronts on the ground floor and either interior loft spaces or additional stories above living units, this building type served as the basic building block of Phnom Penh þ as well as of many other cities in Cambodia and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. Resided in by Khmer peoples as well as Chinese, Cham, Vietnamese and other ethnic minorities, shop houses were and are central to the urban life of Phnom Penh. In addition to the shophouses, the field school focussed attention on traditional wood-frame houses, the typical urban residences of middle-class Khmer in the city until recently.The project area for the 1996 field school was an approximately 16-block concentration of buildings located in the southeastern section of the city. The area was selected for its representative value in that it possessed many of the features of Phnom Penh in microcosm þ shophouses, a market, a temple, school, hospital and a number of traditional houses. Settled by the late 19th century, this area known as Chbar Ampau, served as an important commercial hub at the point of a popular ferry crossing. Construction of a bridge in 1929 ensured further development in the area. Most of the historic buildings date from the period after construction of the bridge, or post-1929, and extend through around 1953-54.The charge to the students was to unravel this history. Students initially mapped and surveyed a 12-block segment, including the core of older development. Individual forms were filled out on over 300 buildings and shopfront units. This number included both older or historic buildings and more recent additions as well in order both to create a more complete record þ a frozen moment from 1996 þ and because it was simply so difficult in the absence of written records or surviving local informants þ many of the area’s original inhabitants had died during the Pol Pot period þ to differentiate the old from the new.Following the survey more historical research was done. This was the task of the U.S. students in particular, who visited archives and libraries and spoke (usually through interpreters) to the few remaining older residents. The area was then mapped and final forms were keyed to the map.This task completed, the students were assigned a single street front from one of their blocks to draw up. This was done at 1:100 scale and helped students develop a better understanding of the relationships among buildings, obtrusive newer additions (or deletions), and the presence of exceptional architecture. The final inked versions of the drawings were used in turn for the urban design exercise held in the last week.The most technically challenging aspect of the course was the measured drawing exercise. Students were assigned nine buildings to measure and draw. Measurements were taken in accordance with the standards of the Historic American Buildings Survey. Measured to the 1/2 centimeter, the field notes were transcribed to measured drawings at 1:50 scale. Final drawings, which consisted of site plans, elevations and interior plans, were then completed in ink. These provide a permanent record of these rather simple, yet distinctive buildings.One implicit feature of the program and other programs such as this is to call attention to the need for historic preservation more generally. Historic preservation may at first appear to be a rarified specialty in a developing country such as Cambodia. However, as the tremendous international tourist interest in the Angkor monuments demonstrates, culture and history have definite economic value. The outstanding colonial and vernacular architecture of Phnom Penh is in fact significant enough to serve as a complement to the famous sites at Siem Reap. Additionally, existing buildings have real economic value. They can be re-used, redeveloped, or simply maintained as continuing assets in a city that requires new investment in order to progress.The 1996 field school made a small contribution to increasing public awareness. the school was covered in the local press, including an excellent short article in the Cambodia Daily. Local television news covered the official opening ceremony. There was also attendance by members of the public, government ministers and by embassy staff. The closing event even featured the exquisite Royal Dancers and musicians.At an international level, the program has received additional publicity. The Chronicle of Higher Education sent a journalist to cover the story. Overall this is seen as simply a first step in developing further interest in the preservation of Cambodia’s significant historic architectural heritage.William Chapman CALL FOR PROPOSALSQUSEIR FORT: VISITORS’ CENTER.The Antiquities Development Project of the American Research Center in Egypt is inviting applications from qualified and experienced persons in the field of site presentation for a short term, fixed price contract in Egypt in 1997, to design and install of a visitors’ center at the Mediaeval Fort at Quseir on the Red Sea coast of Egypt. The visitors’ center will be installed following excavation, consolidation and some limited reconstruction at the fort. Its purpose will be to offer the usual facilities for visitors, including a presentation on the history of the region and the fort itself.Interested parties may apply for further details and a Scope of Work from this office by mail, fax or E-mail. Applications, comprising current curriculum vitae and the names and addresses of three professional referees must be received at this office by 12 noon on 30 November 1996. This position is open to all individuals or companies with experience in this field.Contact: Candidates should forward application requirements to: Antiquities Development Project by mail to The American Research Center in Egypt, 2 Midan Kasr El-Doubara, Garden City, Cairo, Egypt; or facsimile transmission (2 02) 355-6873, or by e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgGRANTS1997 PTTGrants: The National Center for Preservation Training and Technology will consider proposals for 1997 Preservation Technology and Training Grants awards for work in archaeology, historic architecture, historic landscapes, objects and materials conservation and interpretation. 1997 PTTGrants will be awarded competitively; the deadline for submitting proposals is December 20, 1996.1997 PTTGrants will be awarded subject to funding availability. The complete 1997 PTTGrants announcement þ including the request for proposals and instructions on how to prepare and submit applications þ will be available by mid-October exclusively via NCPTT’s fax-on-demand computer (318-357-3214), NCPTT’s gopher site (gopher://gopher.ncptt.nps.gov, under About the Center…/Announcements/1997 Preservation Technology and Training Grants), and World Wide Web page (http://www.cr.nps.gov/ncptt/). Note that the prospective applicants should not rely on previous years’ versions.POSITIONS AVAILABLESENIOR PROGRAM OFFICER: The New Jersey Historic Trust seeks qualified preservationist to help administer its $60 million grant and loan program for historic sites. Duties include: Evaluation of applications for financial assistance and monitoring work on capital projects assisted by the program; providing technical assistance to prospective applicants; writing reports as well as public information materials.Candidates should have advanced degree in architecture, planning or preservation and a minimum of two years full-time experience in the field. Ability to read construction plans and drawings and a working knowledge of the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards required, as are computer skills.Competitive salary and excellent benefits package. Send resume and writing sample to the attention of: Thomas Hemphill, New Jersey Historic Trust, CN-404, Trenton, NJ 08625-0404, tel: 609-984-0473, fax: 609-984-7590.The Trust offices are located in Trenton, New Jersey, in a renovated brownstone. We are three blocks from Route #1 and one block north of the Trenton railroad station.ASSISTANT DIRECTOR, ACOR Amman: The American Center of Oriental Research (ACOR) requires an assistant director, responsible for developing grant applications, administering fellowship grants, oversight of the center’s academic programs and lectures, assistance to resident scholars and fellows, correspondence control (in particular e-mail), researching and drafting responses to inquiries, management and tracking of mailings and donations, maintaining the center’s PCs, coordinating procurement, managing the physical plant, maintaining the physical property inventory, and backing up the hostel manager and librarian in their absences.Required qualifications: willingness to live in the ACOR hostel in Amman; maturity; good people skills; computer skills (Windows and Microsoft Office). Desirable additional skills: basic Arabic, knowledge of U.S. government contracting procedures, interest in archaeology, experience in managing facilities, Macintosh computers, GIS, photography, surveying or drafting.Compensation: $24,000/year, plus hostel room and board for the employee, Jordanian health and life insurance, transportation to/from Amman; one-year contract with a 3-month trial period beginning January 1997.Applications should consist of a letter outlining the applicants qualifications, a CV and the names, addresses, and telephones of three person who would be willing to give references. These should be sent by October 30 to: Search Committee, ACOR, 656 Beacon Street, 5th Floor, Boston, MA 02215-2010, or P.O. Box 2470, Jebel Amman, Amman, Jordan.CALL FOR PAPERSSYMPOSIUM ON THE CONSERVATION & REVITALIZATION OF VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE, 12-18 May 1997, Thailand: Bangkok, Ayutthaya, Supanburi and Samut Songkhram. Submissions of papers and/or posters are invited on the topics related to vernacular architecture (conservation, revitalization, measures for protection, etc) to be presented in the conference. Papers should cover a 10-20 minute oral presentation. Slides, videos are welcome. For papers or posters, send title and an abstract of no more than 250 words. English only. Deadline for abstracts is 30 December 1996.The objectives of the conference are: 1) to provide a forum for discussion on vernacular heritage, particularly architecture which will develop a common understanding of its characteristics and values; 2) to identify problems threatening vernacular architecture and to discuss possible solutions which will be applied to each country’s cases; 3) to develop and promote awareness about vernacular architecture and other forms of vernacular heritage values.This conference encompasses the ICOMOS International Committee on Vernacular Architecture (CIAV) and will include presentations by many committee members.Contact: Organizing Committee, c/o Bureau of Archaeology and National Museums, 81/1 Ayutthaya Road, Dusit, Bangkok 10300, Thailand, tel: 662-281-7037; fax: 662- 182-0897.NOMINATIONS SOUGHT FOR US/ICOMOS TRUSTEES AND OFFICERSThe Trusteeship Committee of the US/ICOMOS Board of Trustees is currently soliciting nominations of members to fill positions available as Trustees and Officers. The Committee is chaired by James P. Kiernan, and includes the members of the Executive Committee. The Committee urges US/ICOMOS members to participate in the nomination process by forwarding suggestions of qualified persons to Mr. Kiernan, at Office of Historical Research, Organization of American States, 19th Street & Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20006, by December 15, 1996.There are no officers up for election; there are six positions available on the Board. Board members whose terms expire at the end of the year are Sarah S. Boasberg, Henry Hoffstot, Spencer Leineweber, Margaret G.H. Mac Lean, Richard Pieper and Peter H. Stott. All these Board members are eligible for reelection; although Ms. Boasberg and Mr. Hoffstot have indicated that they wish to step down.In considering their nominations, US/ICOMOS members may wish to review the following list of major qualifications of Trustees and Officers: 1. Demonstrated interest in US/ICOMOS and the preservation of the international cultural heritage. 2. Experience in managing or influencing the management of a commercial, educational, professional or other enterprise — nonprofit or otherwise — with responsibility for conducting business affairs or programs and managing assets, both tangible and intangible. 3. Working knowledge of the financial structures and the means by which nonprofit organizations customarily conduct their business affairs. 4. Ability to creditably represent US/ICOMOS in public forums dealing with US/ICOMOS matters. 5. Close relationships with other public and private institutions in this and related fields. 6. Significant national and international professional connections.”The Successful Volunteer Organization,” has this to say regarding how to achieve the most effective Board:”Many people recommend a board made up of one-third affluent people, one-third volunteers and one-third professionals — the three Ws: wealth, work and wisdom. Ideally, a board member should be someone who: 1. Is committed to the mission of the organization; 2. Raises money for the organization; that is, this person asks others for money and gives according to his or her means; 3. Is recognized by the people in the organization for his or her honesty, enthusiasm, courage and common sense; 4. Attends meetings regularly; 5. Is willing to work hard; 6. Knows about the issues, the problems and the solutions; 7. Commits himself or herself for a complete term of office; 8. Recruits new members and helps each one find a place in the group; 9. Believes in democracy and majority rule. Enthusiastically supports the group’s decisions, even when he or she is on the losing side; 10. Wants to serve on the Board.US/ICOMOS also tries to maintain geographic and gender diversity among its Trustees.NOMINATIONS FOR FELLOWSHIPUS/ICOMOS is also seeking nominations of members for US/ICOMOS Fellow. The criteria and guidelines are as follows: The United States Committee of the International Council on Monuments and Sites shall honor, for achievement in international preservation, American scholars, professionals and civic volunteers, who have made notable long-term contributions to the enhancement of the quality of life. Those honored shall be known as Fellows and must have worked to advance international preservation standards and programs. Outstanding accomplishments shall be recognized in one or more areas of activity, including but not limited to architecture, architectural history, conservation, history landscape architecture and urban planning. Nominees shall be members of US/ICOMOS. The sponsor of a nomination shall submit a digest of the nominee’s career and achievements. It must contain a biographical sketch and summarize and editorialize the nominee’s accomplishments in the international preservation activity in which the nominee has excelled. The sponsor shall list five individuals as references, to whom the jury will write for supporting letters. Sponsors must not solicit supporting letters. Nominations are due to the Trusteeship Committee no later than December 15, 1996.MILESTONESSvetlana Popovic is a new volunteer at US/ICOMOS, working on the International Summer Intern Program and various other projects. Ms. Popovic is an expert in medieval religious architecture of the Balkans. She is an architect and has a doctorate in architectural history from the University of Belgrade. She is a former Senior Architect of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of Serbia, a former Professor at the University of Belgrade, a lecturer at Princeton University where she was also a Visiting Fellow, and a Junior Fellow at Dumbarton Oaks. * * * US/ICOMOS received a visit from Ms. Sabah Ferdi, Curator of the Museum and Archaeological Sites of Tipasa, Algeria, a World Heritage site. Ms. Ferdi visited the U.S. under the USIA-sponsored International Visitor Program. CALENDARMembers attending these and other international programs should please inform US/ICOMOS of their participation.1996 * November 1. US/ICOMOS Executive Committee Meeting, National Building Museum, Washington, DC. * November 2-3. Classical America — Classical New York, two days of lectures, workshops and walking tours, The Institute for the Study of Classical Architecture, 60 East 42nd Street, Suite 2140, New York, NY 10165, tel: 212-570-7374, fax: 212-627-5470, http://www.aecinfo.com/assoc/isca/ * November 3-8. Congress of the Associação Brasileira Conservadores Bens Culturais, Rio de Janeiro. Info: ABRACOR, Caia Postal 6557, Rio de Janeiro 20030-970, Brazil, fax: 55-21-220-9052. * November 12-23. Course on Deterioration and Treatment of Metals, Havana, Cuba. Contact: CNCRM, Calle Cuba 610, Havana, fax 537- 613335. * December 2-5. The Future of Asia’s Cities, organized by Asia Society, New York, and Center for Information and Development Studies (CIDES), Indonesia, in Jakarta, Indonesia. Register: Asia Society, 725 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10021, ATTN: Cities Conference, tel: 212-288-6400, fax: 212-517-7246. * December 3-14. Course on Historic Archaeology in the Caribbean, Havana, Cuba. Contact: CNCRM, Calle Cuba 610, Havana, fax 537- 613335. * December 5-7. Béton et patrimoine: journées techniques internationales, Section Française de l’ICOMOS with the Ministère de la Culture and the Direction du patrimoine, Le Havre, France. Contact: ICOMOS France, 62 rue Saint Antoine, 75004 Paris, France, tel: 33-1- 18.104.22.168; fax: 33-1-22.214.171.124. * December 13. US/ICOMOS Executive Committee Meeting, National Building Museum, Washington, DC. * December 14. US/ICOMOS Board of Trustees Meeting, National Building Museum, Washington, DC.1997 * April 20-22. RESTORATION 97, a three-day trade event and conference, at the Inforum, Atlanta, Georgia. Contact: RAI/EGI Exhibitions, 129 Park Street, North Reading, MA 01864, tel: 508-664-6455; fax: 508-664-5822: e- mail: email@example.com, information available on the Internet at http://www.raiegi.com. * 31 October. The Future for Heritage Tourism (University of Reading and the Royal Geographical Society/Institute of British Geographers), RGS-ISB, 1 Kensington Gore, London SW7 2AR, United Kingdom. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org * 6-8 November. Australia ICOMOS Workshop on Cultural Landscapes, Robertson, New South Wales, Australia. Contact: J. Lennon, fax: +61 7 3262 7470. * 10-23 November. Conserving Pacific Heritage Sites – PREMO 96. The second of four courses for museum and cultural center professionals. (Federated States of Micronesia, ICCROM, University of Canberra), Island of Pohnpei, FSM. Contact: email@example.com * 10 November to 13 December. Interamerican course on the conservation and management of earthen architectural and archaeological heritage (Peruvian Institute for Culture/ICCROM/Getty Conservation Institute/CRATerre/ UNESCO), Chan Chan, Peru. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org * 29 to 30 November. 20th extraordinary session of the World Heritage Bureau, Merida, Mexico. * 2 to 7 December. 20th session of the World Heritage Committee, Merida, Mexico. * 8 to 10 May. Cultural Heritage in Islands and Small States (Islands and Small States Institute of the Foundation for International Studies in collaboration with the Maltese Ministry for Culture; INSULA c/o MAB, UNESCO; and the Centre for South Pacific Studies, University of New South Wales), Valletta, Malta. Contact: email@example.com * May. Fourth Regional Training Course for Natural Heritage in the Arab Region, Morocco. * 11 to 13 August. Natural Heritage in Europe. (Nordic World Heritage Office/World Heritage Centre), Iceland. * September. Workshop on Andean Cultural Landscapes, Cusco, Peru.