In this Newsletter
** Regional ICOMOS Meeting
** US/ICOMOS Regional Advisors
** Specialized Committee News
** Call for Papers on Wood Structures
** Cultural Heritage at Risk
** Milestones, Calendar
REGIONAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAS IN SANTO DOMINGO
At the invitation of Esteban Prieto, Vice President of ICOMOS and President of the ICOMOS National Committee of the Dominican Republic, all 21 Western Hemisphere National Committee chairmen met in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, on May 29-June 1, 1995. Their meeting was followed by a meeting of the ICOMOS Executive Committee.
Convened in the first World Heritage City of the Americas, the meeting was attended by the following national committee chairmen: Carlos Pernaut (Argentina), Mireya Muñoz (Bolivia), Fernanda Collagrossi (Brazil), Herb Stovel (Canada), Edwin Binda Compton, representing Rodriguo Márquez de la Plata (Chile), Rodolfo Ulloa V. (Colombia), Nora Brenes (Costa Rica), Isabel Rigol (Cuba), Esteban Prieto (Dominican Republic), Wilson Herdoiza (Ecuador), Carlos Hernández (El Salvador), Blanca Niño Norton (Guatemala), Patrick Delatour (Haiti), Gloria de Hasemann (Honduras), Patricia Green (Jamaica), Carlos Flores- Marini (Mexico), Manuel Choy (Panama), Marité Gaona (Paraguay), José Correa (Peru), Ann Webster Smith (USA), Maria Carlota Ibáñez (Venezuela).
The meeting opened with a presentation by Herb Stovel, Chairman of ICOMOS Canada and former Secretary General of ICOMOS, on the topic of authenticity. He asked what ICOMOS means by this idea and why it is important in terms of preservation and conservation now, more than 30 years after the adoption of the Venice Charter which mentioned “the richness of [the heritage’s] authenticity.” He spoke of the ICOMOS interest in ensuring that conservation philosophy remain flexible enough to deal with emerging issues surrounding newer concepts concerning the heritage beyond the notions of “monuments and sites” such as the importance of vernacular architecture, cultural landscapes, the modern movement, the industrial heritage or the intangible values inherent in sacred or religious properties. Mr. Stovel cited ICOMOS’ interest in identifying the common strands that link different geographical areas or different cultures in order to achieve and maintain respect for other traditions.
Experts, he said, can deal with the physical evidences of others’ heritage; the challenge is to find ways to deal with the truth, the realness, the genuineness of the values which that heritage represents. There is a real need to find words that can be used in explaining conservation philosophy and the values inherent in the objects of conservation concern. The question he emphasized is “Where does value lie”?
Participants received invitations and working documents for the US/ICOMOS sponsored international symposium on “Authenticity in the Conservation and Management of the Cultural Heritage,” to be held in San Antonio, Texas, March 24-28, 1996. They agreed that a follow-up regional meeting of chairmen should also be held during the course of the San Antonio gathering. Participants also adopted a resolution supporting and backing that meeting and called on members to meet the November 1995 deadline for the submission of papers. Jean-Louis Luxen, Secretary General of ICOMOS, explained the evolution of the role and involvement of ICOMOS in the World Heritage process, as one of two nongovernmental advisory bodies on the Convention and its implementation. He gave particular attention to ICOMOS’ involvement in the monitoring process (in French, suivi, and in Spanish, sequimento, both of which express the concept of follow-up, an idea perhaps more dynamic than the English term monitoring.) In discussions that followed, particpants suggested the need for review and updating of the indicative lists of properties to be considered for eventual nomination to the World Heritage List by the States Parties to the Convention. There was discussion about the need for models of effective collaboration between ICOMOS, the national committees and the governments of the States Parties. The Secretary General said that ICOMOS was always trying to improve its own procedures for implementing the ICOMOS role as advisor to the World Heritage Committee.
Each of the participating national committee chairmen gave a report on their committee. There was considerable diversity in the numbers of members and in the activities of the various committees. In Mexico, for example, 375 members make up 17 regional committees and 30% of all architects in the country belong to ICOMOS. Panama with a committee of 20 holds symposia in different regions, primarily those threatened in some way, and runs an awards program as an important component of its activities. In the Dominican Republic ICOMOS members do school tours, offer lectures as a part of various university courses, engage in advocacy, offer free access to museums where signs saying “Welcome ICOMOS” are displayed and offer “ICOMOS Nights,” a kind of heritage show-and-tell gathering with slides, talks and wine and cheese. The Guatemalan Committee has recently sponsored a meeting of the ICOMOS International Committee on Vernacular Architecture with broad international participation. The Costa Rican Committee has a paid staff that provides consulting services and undertakes conservation projects, and at one time benefitted from a tax on every box of Costa Rican bananas exported from the country. In Haiti, the committee is involved in the development of a master plan for tourism using monuments and sites as a feature of such programs. Ecuador has a substantial and energetic program of training courses, meetings and advocacy. ICOMOS Ecuador offers courses, raises funds for congresses, for a fee offers 200 municipalities a bible on monuments and sites within the area, and conducts a range of other activities bringing ICOMOS into the life of the central government and the local governments.
Leo van Nispen (Netherlands), former Director of the ICOMOS Secretariat, updated participants concerning the Risk Preparedness Scheme (the Blue Shield proposal) for the protection of monuments at risk from either natural or mand-made disasters. He said that UNESCO’s 1995 General Conference in October will review the Hague Convention (for the protection of cultural property in the event of armed conflict) and its effectiveness. Mr. van Nispen asked whether today’s society is prepared to learn from past experience through scientific analysis in order to prepare for risks and dangers in the future. He spoke of the need to learn about decision making in times of catastrophe and to benefit from past experience in order to plan for the future. He described workshops in Sri Lanka, Canada and Sweden designed to create risk preparedness models and spoke of the need to create national and local risk preparedness squads. For ICOMOS, the risk preparedness idea and Blue Shield are a major program initiative that will develop and unfold over the years ahead.
The 21 national committees at the regional meeting outlined a series of recommendations calling for:
* an information dossier on the international committees, their history and development, for publication in the ICOMOS News;
* a list of proposals for research issues to be considered by the ICOMOS international scientific committees;
* research into possible funding sources for international committee problem area funding;
* a forgiveness of past indebtedness on the part of some committees suffering from extenuating circumstances;
* information on the blue shield proposal for dissemination to national committee membership;
* an exploration of ways to incorporate the Portuguese language into ICOMOS activities, especially those in the Americas;
* further regional meetings to promote harmony and collaboration among national committees;
* a communication to the government of the Dominican Republic calling for further government support for restoration activities; and
* the 12th General Assembly to be held in Mexico in 1999.
During the course of the meeting, Mexican, Canadian and US representatives met as an ICOMOS-NAFTA committee to talk about the possibilities for future collaboration.
As a part of the celebration of the 30th anniversary of ICOMOS, the annual meeting of the full Advisory Committee (all national and international committee chairmen) will be held in Cracow, Poland, from September 10, 1995, along with the meetings of the ICOMOS Bureau (officers) and Executive Committee (officers and Executive Committee members). As a part of the celebration, ICOMOS Poland will host a symposium on “Heritage Responsibilities and Market Rules: Their Role in Managing Historic Cities.”
Ann Webster Smith, US/ICOMOS Chairman
IN SEARCH OF US/ICOMOS REGIONAL ADVISORS/COORDINATORS
During the past year, US/ICOMOS members have indicated their wish to actively extend the activities of the organization throughout the country. A general consensus has been reached that all the US preservation community should have ready access to the international preservation forum, in fulfillment of the goals and objectives of US/ICOMOS and ICOMOS. Because the resources of US/ICOMOS allow only for a small Washington, DC-based staff and very limited travel, the assistance of members throughout the United States is required to fulfill that mandate. US/ICOMOS is seeking volunteers throughout the country to act as advisors on the regions’ needs and capabilities to actively participate in the international preservation forum. Under the leadership of the Board of Trustees, Advisors/Coordinators will work closely with staff by assisting in the identification and development of international programs and projects in their own communities and regions. Possibilities for participation include, but are not limited to:
* Hosting foreign lecturers for local or regional preservation activities, such as seminars, courses, lectures, etc.; reciprocally, identifying local professionals who could participate in such activities abroad.
* Identifying local government and nonprofit organizations to host international summer interns for periods of 12 weeks; and identifying funding sources to support them.
* Promoting a broader membership in US/ICOMOS within the region.
* Identifying local and regional professionals who should participate in the various US/ICOMOS Specialized Committees: Archaeological Site Management, Cultural Tourism, Earthen Architecture, Historic Landscapes, Historic Towns, Training, Vernacular Architecture, Wood.
* Coordinate local meetings of US/ICOMOS members.
* Coordinate local support for hosting US/ICOMOS annual meetings and occasional meetings of the international ICOMOS Executive and Advisory Committees.
To present your candidacy for US/ICOMOS Advisor/Coordinator, please submit a short curriculum vitae; indicate the region, state of locality you wish to represent; together with a short narrative describing your qualifications to hold that charge and your plan of action.
CALL FOR PAPERS
Wood Structures: A Global Forum on the Treatment, Conservation and Repair of Cultural Heritage
Papers are invited for a Special Technical Publication (STP), to be published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The working title of this publication is Wood Structures: A Global Forum on the Treatment, Conservation and Repair of Cultural Heritage.
The STP is sponsored by ASTM Subcommittee E6.24 on “Building Preservation and Rehabilitation Technology” in cooperation with US/ICOMOS, ICOMOS Canada and the Association for Preservation Technology (APT).
The objective of the STP is to present an overview of current treatment, conservation and repair approaches for heritage wood structures, and to provide a forum for sharing of technical information about wood preservation. For example, Preobrazhenskaya Sobor (Church of the Transfiguration) on Kizhi Island in Lake Onega in Karelia, Russia, will be the focal point for one group of papers. Additional groups of papers will address heritage wood buildings in other regions of Europe, North America and Asia. Papers are invited from architects, engineers, conservators and others involved in the technical preservation of wood structures of historic significance and cultural interest.
All submittals must be in English. Prospective authors are asked to submit a title, and a single page abstract, for selection mid-summer, to Stephen J. Kelley, c/o WJE, 29 North Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL 60606, USA, tel: 312-372-0555, fax: 312-372-0873, e-mail: email@example.com.
Authors will be notified of their acceptance for publication by late summer. ASTM may print and distribute abstracts with the approval of the STP Chairpersons. Final manuscripts for the STP are due by November 1, 1995. Papers by non-English speaking authors should be submitted in both the author’s primary language and in English. Papers will be published in English.
The Cultural Dimension of Development: Towards a Practical Approach, published by UNESCO Publishing, 1995, in English or in French. The work addresses the basic issues, such as how to integrate cultural factors into development processes? where does international cooperation stand today? what does the term culture mean? how can development agencies be more effective in planning and implementing their action? Based on many well-known previous attempts, this book tries to systematize the interactions between cultures and development so as to identify the common methodological aspects of present experience. 229 pp., ISBN # 92-3-103043-4 (85FF). Order from UNIPUB, 4611-F Assembly Drive, Lanham, MD 20706-4391, tel: 1-800-274-4888, fax: 301-459-0056.
Lost Russia: Photographing the Ruins of Russian Architecture, by William Craft Brumfield, Duke University Press, 1995. The cataclysmic events in 20th century Russian have resulted in the loss of an enormous number of historic monuments. Brumfield, in earlier works, has created the most complete photographic corpus of Russian architecture. In this publication, in his own words, he strives to “illuminate Russian culture as reflected in architectural monuments from the heartland, from areas not often seen by foreign visitors.” The subjects include late medieval churches, neoclassical estate houses and provincial towns. The beautiful photography is complemented by a personal and thoughtful narrative. 134 pp., B&W illustrations, $27.95 paper, $59.95 cloth. To order: tel: 919-688-5134; fax: 919-688-4574.
ICOMOS Nara Conference on Authenticity: Working Papers, November 1-6, 1994, Nara, Japan. A collection of papers presented at the third ICOMOS conference examining the subject of authenticity, including the conclusions of previous meetings at Naples and Bergen, general reports and session summaries. 344 pp. Available from the ICOMOS Secretariat for $10. Contact: ICOMOS, 75 rue du Temple, 75003 Paris, France.
NEWS OF THE NATIONAL SPECIALIZED COMMITTEES
The US/ICOMOS National Specialized Committee on Cultural Tourism was formed in January and has begun work on three promising initiatives following the adoption of an annual work plan. The development of information about historic sites of interest to foreign visitors is a priority to the US/ICOMOS information network. At present not all available information about the location of sites and visitors’ interest is used for tourism planning and promotion. To address this need discussions have begun with the staff of the National Register of Historic Places to develop lists of properties representing historic themes, such as the one prepared for Hispanic historic sites. Members are also reviewing state tourism office surveys to determine foreign travelers’ interest in historic destinations and cultural events. This information will be used to augment the historic theme lists, will become part of existing or new tourist information networks and will be disseminated to other ICOMOS national committees.
Face to face cultural tourism exchange is planned also. Discussions have begun to develop joint projects with other ICOMOS national committees in the Ukraine, Canada and Mexico. Such projects may include conferences, training and the exchange of experts about the many aspects of protecting and presenting sites and monuments, while promoting the goals of national cultural tourism programs.
White House Conference on Travel and Tourism
The Commmittee is participating actively in a cultural tourism working group for the White House Conference on Travel and Tourism, planned for October 30-31, 1995, in Washington, DC. More than 1,600 delegates selected by the tourism industry and the states’ travel and tourism offices will deliberate 10 issues which are now being addressed in state conferences and focus groups of the delegates to make recommendations for action. There is, however, little representation from the cultural, museum and historic sites community to assure that these tourism resources are included in the dialogue.
The cultural tourism working group formed to address these needs for the Conference is composed of federal agencies: the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA), the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), the Institute of Museum Services (IMS) and the President’s Committee on the Arts and Humanities (PCAH); with many affiliated groups, including the US/ICOMOS Cultural Tourism Committee, the American Association of Museums (AAM), the National Coalition of Heritage Areas and others. The group has met with the White House Conference planning staff to develop events and open communications with the delegates. A program for a luncheon event at the Conference and activities that will create a forum to discuss cultural tourism are planned.
A position paper titled The US in the U.S.: Culture and Tourism has been prepared to define the 10 forum issues in terms of cultural tourism concerns. The paper defines the established conference issues in broad terms to be understood by both the preservation and tourism community. The 10 issues are: product development of sites and events; promotion; research in economics and travel statistics; technology for information dissemination; infrastructure to support the visitor; education and training; environmental concerns (including the built environment and the concerns of local people); facilitation and accessibility; safety and security; and an organizational framework for a formal federal role in tourism development and promotion. (Copies of this paper are available at US/ICOMOS.)
Cultural Tourism Consortium
The Cultural Tourism Committee is also participating in a consortium of organizations concerned with cultural tourism in the United States. Co- chair Hugh C. Miller and Program Director Ellen Delage attended a meeting of the consortium convened by member Sharr Prohaska at the National Trust office on April 3. Representatives from the Folklife Program of the Smithsonian Institution, National Park Service, Rural Programs of the Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Forest Service, NEA, NEH, U.S. Travel and Tourism Administration, National Trust, AAM, George Washington University’s International Tourism Institute and others, discussed their on-going projects to promote heritage tourism and to protect sites in the U.S. There were a number of expressions of interest in US/ICOMOS programs and the good potential of our projects.
For the purpose of the US/ICOMOS Cultural Tourism Committee, the ideas of cultural tourism are defined holistically to encompass all the meanings of culture, historic resources, historic preservation, heritage tourism, etc., as used in the United States, while still applicable to the International ICOMOS cultural tourism community and to the international tourist and travel industry at large. These broadly defined cultural resources are non-renewable assets of the tourism industry that have receipts of $3.5 trillion worldwide. The careful management of these resources is essential to ensure a sustainable tourism industry. They must include: Planning, Presenting, Promoting and Protection. The cost/benefits of these activities are an integral part of the implementation and management of any cultural tourism destination area or program and must be articulated in all discussions with the tourism industry and governmental organizations. The Cultural Tourism Committee seeks to communicate these opportunities and concerns to all parties in the preservaiton and travel industry.
The Cultural Tourism Specialized Committee welcomes members and new items for its newsletter. The success of the Committee will depend on networking among its members.
CULTURAL HERITAGE AT RISK
The Post-War Reconstruction & Development Unit (PRDU) is part of the University of York’s (UK) Institute of Advanced Architectural Studies. It is a unique academic unit that specializes in the research, consultancy and training of professionals on issues of planning and management of reconstruction after war.
The PRDU recently completed a feasibility study on integrating measures for protection of, and mitigation of damage to, cultural heritage sites, monuments and objects, within national and local disaster preparedness plans. The study was undertaken on behalf of the Inter-Agency Task Force which represents UNESCO, ICOMOS and ICCROM. In accordance with this feasibility study five regional workshops will be organized, over the next two years, on disaster management for cultural property, to promote cooperation between cultural resource managers and disaster planners at all levels. The workshop will be facilitated by two members of PRDU-ICOMOS on behalf of the task force. These workshops will be held between June 1995 and April 1996 in regions that have suffered, over the last two decades, from concentrated damage to cultural heritage due to man-made and /or natural disasters. The five regions (and host countries) are: South East Asia & the Pacific (Sri Lanka); Europe (Macedonia); Africa (South Africa); Central & South America (Mexico); Middle East & Central Asia (Lebanon).
Feedback from the workshops and the resulting national preparedness plans will inform a progress report and recommendations for action, to be presented at the ICOMOS General Assembly in October 1996.
The response to a survey of 140 countries carried out as part of the feasibility study, showed that while 93% think it is possible to integrate the protection of cultural heritage into their national disaster preparedness plans, at present only 15% have such integration. More will be reported on the ICOMOS Blue Shield initiative in future issues of the US/ICOMOS Newsletter.
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MEDITERRANEAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES
Aiming to address the serious threat of mass tourism to the important archaeological sites of the Mediterranean region, the first international conference on the subject brought together 60 high-level government officials and other experts in the areas of culture, archaeology and tourism from 16 Mediterranean countries. Organized by the Getty Conservation Institute and the J. Paul Getty Museum, the six-day conference drew attention to the impact of heavy visitation upon archaeological sites and underscored a need for appropriate measures by governments and professionals to ensure their preservation for future generations. From May 7 to 12, decision-makers from the region addressed the complicated and difficult challenges in balancing the often conflicting values of conservation, archaeology, tourism and economic development as they relate to archaeological sites. The group agreed on several key points:
* Mass tourism, while having a positive economic impact, poses a serious threat to the long-term survival of cultural sites.
* Increased visitor interest has created the need for new approaches to presenting information at cultural sites.
* There is an increased awareness of the potential for the educational uses of archaeological sites.
* To face these new challenges, site managers will benefit from new kinds of training, resources and support.
Conference presentations and group discussions focused on aesthetic, economic, religious, political and scientific issues that affect preservation of the region’s archaeological sites. Also discussed was the potential for partnerships between cultural officials and tourism organizations to more effectively manage well-visited sites. In reviewing the complex issues surrounding the presentation of sites to visitors, conferees also discussed alternatives to the reconstruction of archaeological structures. Site visits to Carthage (Tunisia), Piazza Armerina (Sicily), Knossos (Crete) and Ephesus (Turkey) enabled conference participants to see various resolutions to conservation problems and to understand site management issues common to the group.
The University of Florida’s College of Architecture has let it be known that William J. Murtagh and Eduard F. Sekler will be the first appointees of the newly-established Beinecke-Reeves Distinguished Chair in Historic Preservation for 1995-1996. Dr. Murtagh is Director of the Pacific Preservation Consortium in the Department of American Studies at the University of Hawaii in Honolulu. Dr. Sekler is Osgood Professor at the Carpenter Center, Harvard University, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Both are Fellows of US/ICOMOS. Walter Beinecke and F. Blair Reeves, members of US/ICOMOS and former members of the Board of the National Trust for Historic Preservation, founded and developed the Preservation Institute: Nantucket on Nantucket Island, as a summer program of the University of Florida’s College of Architecture. Through 1998, appointees will include Jan Abel of Tampa, Colin Rowe of London and Washington, DC, Kenneth Frampton of New York and Graziano Gasparini of Venezuela. * * * Moya B. King, US/ICOMOS member and former Manager of the Tour Program, Smithsonian Resident Associates Program, now volunteers her time at US/ICOMOS one day a week.
Members attending these and other international programs should please inform US/ICOMOS of their participation.
* September 8-10, 1995. NEW DATE & VENUE: Annual Meeting of the ICOMOS International Committee on Cultural Tourism, Delphi, Greece. This meeting date has been changed to avoid a conflict with the UK specialized committee meeting in Bath (October 6-7) and the ICOMOS European Regional Assembly being organized by the Czech Committee (October 18-22). Please confirm attendance directly with the Greek Committee: confirm by July 25. If you had confirmed for the earlier date, please re- confirm your attendance in Delphi. Contact: Catherine Kremesi, Prigiponisson 1 Filothei, 152-37 Athens, Greece, fax: 30-1-381-3910.
* September 10-13, 1995. ICOMOS Annual Meetings of the Executive Committee and Advisory Committee, Cracow, Poland, on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of ICOMOS.
* September 13-15, 1995. International Symposium, Duties towards Heritage and Market Laws: Impact on the Management of Historic Towns. ICOMOS Poland.
* September 15-17, 1995. Meeting of the US/ICOMOS Board of Trustees, Washington, DC.
* September 27-29, 1995. A PATA Heritage Conference on Tourism: A Force for Conservation of Nature and Culture, Laguna Phuket, Phuket, Thailand, organized in association with UNEP and UNESCO. The conference objectives are to identify the potential of tourism (for example, the concept of Values-Based Tourism) as a significant force to preserve and conserve the heritage of mankind; and to provide opportunities for networking between conservationists and travel and tourism professionals. Contact: Andrea Yeo, Coordinator – Projects, PATA Asia Division, 138 Cecil Street, #06-03 Cecil Court, Singapore 0106, tel: 65-223-7854/5; fax: 65- 225-6842,
* October 9-11, 1995. Third Encounter of American Specialists: 5th Chilean Days for Architectural and Urban Preservation, Faculty of Architec- ture, University of Valparaiso, organized under the auspices of the ICOMOS National Committee of Chile, the College of Architects, Ministry of the Environment and Urbanism and others.
* October 13, 1995. US/ICOMOS Educational Session at the National Trust Annual Conference (October 11-15), Fort Worth, Texas.
* October 16-21, 1995. ICOMOS European Conference to be held in historic town of Czesky Krumlov, a World Heritage site in the Czech Republic, under the patronage of the President, Vaclav Havel. The confer- ence will focus on: authenticity and the practice of conservation and restoration of monuments and sites; and the monitoring of World Heritage sites. The meeting will close with a day trip to visit historic town in southern Bohemia. Contact: Sekretariat Ceskeho narodniho komitetu ICOMOS, Valdstejnske namesti 3, 118 01 Praha 1, Czech Republic; tel: 42-2-513- 2592; fax: 42-2-535-496.
* November 23-26, 1995. Annual Meeting of ICOMOS Canada to be held in Ottawa. US/ICOMOS members are invited to attend the meeting on the theme, Vital Signs, which will provide an opportunity to discuss improved means for the evaluation of hertiage conservtion programs, policies, projects and sites. In this era of diminishing financial support, it is increasingly important to be able to defend the efficiency of existing conservation programs or approaches, and to improve their cost-effectiveness. This requires evaluation methods which can offer a measure of objective appreciation of heritage work. The Ottawa conference will explore different approaches to this topic in all facets of the field including monitoring or the state of conservation of significant sites, and legislative, policy and program reviews. Contact: ICOMOS Canada, P.O. Box 737, Station B, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5R4, tel/fax: 613-749-0971.