In this Newsletter
** Architectural Conservation at the Archaeological Site of Gordion, Turkey
** US/ICOMOS Summer Interns Return Abroad
** News of the ICOMOS Committees
** Recruiting Delegation to Russia
ARCHITECTURAL CONSERVATION AT THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE OF GORDION, TURKEY
William C.S. Remsen, AIA, Director of Architectural Conservation, Gordion Project, University Museum, University of Pennsylvania.
During the 1993 season at the archaeological site of Gordion, Turkey, a major campaign of architectural conservation was initiated. The primary achievement was the development and implementation of architectural conservation techniques for the masonry Terrace Building 4 (TB4) which could be applied throughout Gordion. The philosophical goals included minimal intervention with maximum protection of the ancient materials while increasing the building’s legibility to site visitors and reducing long term maintenance. Monitoring, documentation and preservation planning continued on the burned mud brick Megaron 1, the Gate of the massive masonry city wall, and Tumulus MM “Midas” Tomb, one of the oldest wood structures in the world.
Gordion was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Phrygia, which reached the apex of its prosperity under the rule of the legendary King Midas. Gordion was sacked and burned, probably by invading Kimmerian nomads, around 700 B.C. The Early Phrygian architectural remains discussed here were excavated by Rodney S. Young of the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania, between 1950 and 1973. The city mound of ancient Gordion is located about 100 km southwest of the modern Turkish capital of Ankara.
TB4 was selected as a conservation pilot project because of its central location for site visitors, its typical masonry construction and the range of its preserved conditions. TB4 is one of 8 similar contiguous units constructed of roughly squared ashlar masonry of local limestones and sandstones. Wood was used for structural members, such as columns and roof beams. The interior wall surfaces show traces of mud plaster. Each unit has an entrance door on the west leading through an anteroom into a large columned main room. Archaeological remains indicate that these buildings were used for craft production. Burned in the c. 700 B.C. conflagration, the TB4 remains have been left exposed for 30 years since excavation, resulting in significant weathering of the fire-damaged masonry.
The 1993 preservation work on TB4 included detailed documentation of existing conditions and various conservation interventions including the installation of a sacrificial cap on top of a portion of the existing walls. After cleaning down to relatively sound stone, a transitional leveling masonry layer utilizing soft mortar was added to the original material. Newly quarried local limestone blocks, capped with sloping hard cement mortar, made up the sacrificial cap. Small limestone chips were used to differentiate the transitional layer from the original material.
The 1994 season will extend conservation work on TB4. Megaron 1, which continues to deteriorate despite earlier conservation efforts, will be carefully backfilled. A duplicate Megaron 1, approximately 1 meter high and made of stabilized mud brick, will be constructed directly above the original remains for the benefit of site visitors. The “Midas” Tomb, subject of a large international symposium in 1993 to develop preservation strategies for this unique monument and its contents, will continue to be monitored while a team of structural engineers designs new supports for the interior and exterior of the Tomb.
US/ICOMOS SUMMER INTERNS RETURN ABROAD
Jane Covington, US/ICOMOS Intern 1992
In September 1992, Kathryn Sather and Jane Covington, alumna of the US/ICOMOS Summer Intern Program, were hired as consultants to the Aga Khan Trust for Culture Master Plan, a conservation planning project for the restoration of Zanzibar’s Historic Stone Town. The 2-year project will terminate in June 1994 upon the publication of the Zanzibar Master Plan. The Master Plan will include surveys and evaluations of the historic core and will put forth proposals for urban development and conservation.
The island of Zanzibar is located near the equator off the coast of Tanzania in East Africa. Stone Town is the original permanent settlement on Zanzibar Island and recently there has been a renewed interest in the revitalization of Stone Town. Many of the town’s important buildings and infrastructure systems are currently under restoration or are being considered for restoration by international donor organizations. The Master Plan is intended to provide the legal and logistical framework and conservation guidelines for donor organizations to carry our their projects.
Zanzibar was an important port city for Arab traders for more than 1,000 years, and the city gained its rich fortunes in the mid-19th century. The town developed as a trading crossroads between Europe, Asia and America. In exchange for foreign imports, Zanzibar exported the riches of the African mainland: gold, ivory, slaves and its famous cloves. As traders began to settle, Zanzibar became a cosmopolitan center. The cultural patrimony which remains today reflects this blend of Arab, Indian, Swahili and European cultures. Each culture imported its own building methods, weaving a matrix of architectural styles.
Although Stone Town has been the subject of numerous planning studies, effective action for renovation did not begin until 1982 when the Zanzibar government asked the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements to develop a planning strategy for Stone Town. The study was published in 1984 and resulted in the establishment of the Stone Town Conservation and Development Authority. The mandate of the authority was to provide technical assistance for the renovation of the town as well as to act informally as an advocacy group.
Although the physical form of the city has not significantly changed since its heyday in the late-19th century, radical political and economic changes have taken place which are impacting the town. In 1964, Zanzibar was taken over in a revolution by the Tanzanian mainland. The new revolutionary government confiscated all private property and has allowed many historic properties to disintegrate. The majority of the buildings in Stone Town are currently deteriorated. As a result of 30 years of neglect, several buildings collapse every year. Economic changes have been brought about through the recent rise in tourism. As the number of tourists increase, many buildings have been torn down to make way for larger hotels.
As the project nears completion, its success can already be measured. Local inhabitants are now aware of the cultural and monetary value of their architectural heritage. The government is now more willing to comply with proposed planning laws. In addition, spin-off projects, such as an architectural conservation center, are currently in process.
NEWS OF THE ICOMOS COMMITTEES
Daniel Sydney Kpodo-Tay, Chairman of the ICOMOS National Committee of Ghana, was the only African to serve on the 7-member jury convened in January 1994 to select a permanent historical monument for the African Burial Ground in lower Manhattan, New York City. The jury was composed of architects, artists and experts on African-American history and culture. Development of the site will include plans for a museum and learning center and for the reinternment of all excavated human remains.
US/ICOMOS now receives the new bi-monthly newsletter, El Restaurador, of ICOMOS Costa Rica.
The ICOMOS International Wood Committee held its 9th international symposium and meeting in Japan, March 7-12, 1994. Approximately 2 dozen participants from 8 countries toured shrines and temples in various stages of repair in Mara, Kyoto, Kobe and Himeji City. The week began with a visit to the Ise shrine in Ise City, the most sacred site in Japan. Meeting in Himeji City at the end of the week, members of the Committee addressed the ongoing task of adapting the provisions of the Venice Charter to the special issues of the conservation of timber buildings. Several presentations were made including reviews of the ongoing Wood Committee-sponsored work in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal and at the Kishi Pogost World Heritage Site in the Karelian Autonomous Republic. The Committee is planning the first International Expert Meeting on Historic Forest Reserves in Sogndal, Norway, tentatively scheduled for May-June 1995.
The ICOMOS International Committee on Cultural Tourism will hold its annual meeting in Budapest, Hungary, on September 25,1994, in conjunction with a seminar organized by the Hungarian National Committee. Contact: Dr. Elizabeth Kovacs, fax: 011-36-1-1750763.
RECRUITING DELEGATION TO RUSSIA
The Citizen Ambassador Program of People to People International is developing a delegation of professionals and advocates of community enrichment to travel to Moscow and St. Petersburg this November. The group will comprise 25-30 individuals of diverse professional backgrounds. Dates are November 18-30; cost to participants is $4,325, including airfare to/from New York. Interested persons should contact US/ICOMOS for a detailed schedule of activities.
The World Heritage Newsletter is published by The World Heritage Centre, UNESCO, 7 place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP. The Newsletter is available free of charge on request write to the above address, giving your name and address for mailing.
Preservation Brief 34: Applied Decoration for Historic Interiors: Preserving Composition Ornament. Jonathan Thornton and William Adair, FAAR. Describes the history, appearance and characteristics of the material as well as guidance to identify it, and prescribes appropriate treatments. GPO stock number: 024-005-01137-4. $1.50 per copy, no postage or handling. Make check payable to Superintendent of Documents and mail to same at Government Printing Office, P.O. Box 37194, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954.
Two new volumes of the series, ICOMOS: Journals of the German National Committee are now available. Number XI, Historische Kulturlandschaften, is a collection of papers presented at the 1992 conference organized by the German Committee and the ICOMOS International Committee on Vernacular Architecture, “Protection and Management of the Vernacular Architectural Heritage — Preservation of Historic Cultural Landscapes in Europe.” 80 pp., color illus., softbound, in German, English & French, 25 DM. Number XII, Architekten und Denkmalpflege, is a collection of presentations from the 1992 conference of the German Committee, “Architects and Preservation,” focussing on the conflicting role of the architect in connection with contemporary preservation efforts. 52 pp., b&w illus., softbound, in German, 15 DM. Order from Karl M. Lipp-Verlag, Meglingerstrasse 60, 81477 Munchen, tel: 49-89-785808-0, fax: 49-89-78580833.
The UNESCO Courier. The monthly news magazine of UNESCO, exploring the diversity of world culture and knowledge. Annual subscriptions for $55. Order this and other UNESCO publications from UNIPUB, exclusive U.S. distributor: Toll free 1-800-274-4888; Fax 301-459-0056; Internet: email@example.com.
Masterworks of Man and Nature: Preserving Our World Heritage, a joint publication of UNESCO and the World Conservation Union. A photographic atlas of the greatest accomplishments of human technology and the most beautiful scenery of the global landscape. 600 color illus., 496 pp., index, appendix, glossary, 9″ x 12,” $35.00 hc. To order: Facts On File, 460 Park Avenue South, NYC 10016, tel: 1-800-322-8755; fax: 1-800-678-3633.
Members attending these and other international programs should please inform US/ICOMOS of their participation.
August 1, 1994. Restoration 95: Call for Presentations. The largest preservation trade event in the world, held concurrently with a conference of seminars, workshops and roundtable discussions. Restoration is attended by professionals, serious collectors and homeowners of historic properties. The theme in 1995 is Affordable Preservation: Practical Strategies for the 90s. Proposals for conference presentations are being solicited until August 1, 1994; the conference and trade show will be held February 26-28, 1995, in Boston, MA. For submission details and a list of suggested topics, contact US/ICOMOS.
October 11-15, 1994. International Conference, ICAHM Montréal 1994, “Archaeological Remains — In Situ Preservation, organized by the ICOMOS International Committee on Archaeological Heritage Management (ICAHM), with the sponsorship of Canadian Heritage, the government of Québec and the City of Montréal, in Montréal, Canada. Papers and workshops focus on 3 themes: the Components of the Preservation Process, Strategies for the Selection of Places and Elements to Conserve within Sites, the role of Contributors and Clients. Contact: ICAHM Montréal 1994, Ville de Montréal, Service de l’habitation et du développement urbain, 303 rue Notre-Dame Est, 5e étage, Montréal, Québec, attn: Mrs. Rita Rachele Dandavino, tel: 514-872-7531, fax: 514-872-0024.
November 7-12, 1994. Asia and West Pacific Network for Urban Conservation, Inc., Third Annual Symposium: Ancient Cities in Transition: The Challenges for Conservation, in Hanoi, Vietnam. Rather than a series of lectures on different topics, the symposium will be practical and interactive, using the city of Hanoi as a model and case study. The opening session will introduce planning issues and infrastructure problems faced by Hanoi; written papers on comparative approaches will be distributed and teams will be formed to work in the field for the next three days. On the last two days, work will be displayed and discussed and summarized for publication. Contact: Penny Ramsay, Hon. Sec., AWPNUC, 33 Hurtle Square, Adelaide, A 5000, Australia, fax: 61-8-223-4847.